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Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

Wang QS, Xiang Y, Cui YL, Lin KM, Zhang XF - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice.Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo.These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported.

Methodology/principal findings: The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK) α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo.

Conclusions and implications: These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effects of blue pigments on carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice.Blue pigments (30, 60, 120 mg/kg), dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) or with 0.9% saline were administered 30 min before carrageenan injection into mice for alleviation of acute inflammation. Paw thickness was measured using Plethysmometer before and every hour after edema induction for 4 h. The percent increase of paw thickness was calculated based on the volume difference between the paw with and without carrageenan injection. Data represent means ± S.D. values. * P<0.05, ** P<0.01 (n = 10) indicate significant differences from vehicle control.
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pone-0034122-g008: Effects of blue pigments on carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice.Blue pigments (30, 60, 120 mg/kg), dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) or with 0.9% saline were administered 30 min before carrageenan injection into mice for alleviation of acute inflammation. Paw thickness was measured using Plethysmometer before and every hour after edema induction for 4 h. The percent increase of paw thickness was calculated based on the volume difference between the paw with and without carrageenan injection. Data represent means ± S.D. values. * P<0.05, ** P<0.01 (n = 10) indicate significant differences from vehicle control.

Mentions: The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was examined using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. As shown in Figure 8, treatment with blue pigments (60, 120 mg/kg) showed significant inhibitory effects on paw swelling, compared with the vehicle control group. Maximal edema inhibition was observed at 1 h after edema induction. Notably, treatment with blue pigments (120 mg/kg) reduced edema by 21.9% at 1 h, whereas the positive control, Dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) decreased the edema rate by 34.5% at 1 h.


Dietary blue pigments derived from genipin, attenuate inflammation by inhibiting LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 expression via the NF-κB inactivation.

Wang QS, Xiang Y, Cui YL, Lin KM, Zhang XF - PLoS ONE (2012)

Effects of blue pigments on carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice.Blue pigments (30, 60, 120 mg/kg), dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) or with 0.9% saline were administered 30 min before carrageenan injection into mice for alleviation of acute inflammation. Paw thickness was measured using Plethysmometer before and every hour after edema induction for 4 h. The percent increase of paw thickness was calculated based on the volume difference between the paw with and without carrageenan injection. Data represent means ± S.D. values. * P<0.05, ** P<0.01 (n = 10) indicate significant differences from vehicle control.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3316609&req=5

pone-0034122-g008: Effects of blue pigments on carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice.Blue pigments (30, 60, 120 mg/kg), dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) or with 0.9% saline were administered 30 min before carrageenan injection into mice for alleviation of acute inflammation. Paw thickness was measured using Plethysmometer before and every hour after edema induction for 4 h. The percent increase of paw thickness was calculated based on the volume difference between the paw with and without carrageenan injection. Data represent means ± S.D. values. * P<0.05, ** P<0.01 (n = 10) indicate significant differences from vehicle control.
Mentions: The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was examined using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model. As shown in Figure 8, treatment with blue pigments (60, 120 mg/kg) showed significant inhibitory effects on paw swelling, compared with the vehicle control group. Maximal edema inhibition was observed at 1 h after edema induction. Notably, treatment with blue pigments (120 mg/kg) reduced edema by 21.9% at 1 h, whereas the positive control, Dexamethasone (10 mg/kg) decreased the edema rate by 34.5% at 1 h.

Bottom Line: The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice.Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo.These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background and purpose: The edible blue pigments produced by gardenia fruits have been used as value-added colorants for foods in East Asia for 20 years. However, the biological activity of the blue pigments derived from genipin has not been reported.

Methodology/principal findings: The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments was studied in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage in vitro. The secretions of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were inhibited in concentration-dependent manner by blue pigments. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (Real-time RT-PCR) analyses demonstrated that the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was inhibited, moreover, ELISA results showed that the productions of IL-6 and TNF-α were inhibited. Cell-based ELISA revealed the COX-2 protein expression was inhibited. The proteome profiler array showed that 12 cytokines and chemokines involved in the inflammatory process were down-regulated by blue pigments. Blue pigments inhibited the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with decreasing the DNA-binding activity of p65 and p50. Furthermore, blue pigments suppressed the degradation of inhibitor of κB (IκB) α, Inhibitor of NF-κB Kinase (IKK) α, IKK-β, and phosphorylation of IκB-α. The anti-inflammatory effect of blue pigments in vivo was studied in carrageenan-induced paw edema and LPS-injecting ICR mice. Finally, blue pigments significantly inhibited paw swelling and reduced plasma TNF-α and IL-6 production in vivo.

Conclusions and implications: These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of blue pigments might be the results from the inhibition of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α expression through the down-regulation of NF-κB activation, which will provide strong scientific evidence for the edible blue pigments to be developed as a new health-enhancing nutritional food for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus