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Molecular evolution of the neuropeptide S receptor.

Pitti T, Manoj N - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the NPSR is most closely related to the invertebrate cardioacceleratory peptide receptor (CCAPR) and the group of vasopressin-like receptors.Gene structure features were congruent with the phylogenetic clustering and supported the orthology of NPSR to the invertebrate NPSR-like and CCAPR.The data can facilitate experimental studies aiming at deciphering the common features as well as those related to ligand binding and signal transduction processes specific to the NPSR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.

ABSTRACT
The neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR) is a recently deorphanized member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is activated by the neuropeptide S (NPS). NPSR and NPS are widely expressed in central nervous system and are known to have crucial roles in asthma pathogenesis, locomotor activity, wakefulness, anxiety and food intake. The NPS-NPSR system was previously thought to have first evolved in the tetrapods. Here we examine the origin and the molecular evolution of the NPSR using in-silico comparative analyses and document the molecular basis of divergence of the NPSR from its closest vertebrate paralogs. In this study, NPSR-like sequences have been identified in a hemichordate and a cephalochordate, suggesting an earlier emergence of a NPSR-like sequence in the metazoan lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the NPSR is most closely related to the invertebrate cardioacceleratory peptide receptor (CCAPR) and the group of vasopressin-like receptors. Gene structure features were congruent with the phylogenetic clustering and supported the orthology of NPSR to the invertebrate NPSR-like and CCAPR. A site-specific analysis between the vertebrate NPSR and the well studied paralogous vasopressin-like receptor subtypes revealed several putative amino acid sites that may account for the observed functional divergence between them. The data can facilitate experimental studies aiming at deciphering the common features as well as those related to ligand binding and signal transduction processes specific to the NPSR.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Conservation and variability of intron positions and phases.Schematic of the multiple alignment of amino acid sequences of the NPSR, NPSR-like and representatives from the CCAPR and vasopressin-like receptor subtypes are shown. The 0, 1, 2 phase introns are marked with black, red and green lines, respectively. Introns corresponding to human NPSR are named I to VIII according to their positions in the amino acid sequence. The gene structure details of all sequences indicating exon-intron lengths, intron positions and phases are presented in Figure S3, S4 and Data S2.
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pone-0034046-g004: Conservation and variability of intron positions and phases.Schematic of the multiple alignment of amino acid sequences of the NPSR, NPSR-like and representatives from the CCAPR and vasopressin-like receptor subtypes are shown. The 0, 1, 2 phase introns are marked with black, red and green lines, respectively. Introns corresponding to human NPSR are named I to VIII according to their positions in the amino acid sequence. The gene structure details of all sequences indicating exon-intron lengths, intron positions and phases are presented in Figure S3, S4 and Data S2.

Mentions: Bayesian tree of NPSR (red), invertebrate NPSR-like receptor (orange), CCAPR (green), V1AR (blue), V1BR (blue), OTR (blue), V2R (blue), GnRHR (vertebrate and invertebrate Gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor) and VPR (invertebrate vasopressin-like receptor) (blue) sequences. The tree was generated using the Bayesian approach in MrBayes 3.1.2 using JTT+F+I+G model. Bayesian posterior probabilities are marked near branches as a percentage and are used as confidence values of tree branches. Nodes were compressed to represent the animal lineages. Scale bar represents the number of estimated changes per site for a unit of branch length. The receptor group abbreviations, names and accession numbers of the sequences and common and binomial names of the species are as listed in Table S2. In this figure and in Figure 4, the sequence names marked with * and +symbols represent manually corrected sequences at the N terminus and C terminus, respectively. Sequence names marked with ‡ symbol in this figure represent fragmented sequences.


Molecular evolution of the neuropeptide S receptor.

Pitti T, Manoj N - PLoS ONE (2012)

Conservation and variability of intron positions and phases.Schematic of the multiple alignment of amino acid sequences of the NPSR, NPSR-like and representatives from the CCAPR and vasopressin-like receptor subtypes are shown. The 0, 1, 2 phase introns are marked with black, red and green lines, respectively. Introns corresponding to human NPSR are named I to VIII according to their positions in the amino acid sequence. The gene structure details of all sequences indicating exon-intron lengths, intron positions and phases are presented in Figure S3, S4 and Data S2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3316597&req=5

pone-0034046-g004: Conservation and variability of intron positions and phases.Schematic of the multiple alignment of amino acid sequences of the NPSR, NPSR-like and representatives from the CCAPR and vasopressin-like receptor subtypes are shown. The 0, 1, 2 phase introns are marked with black, red and green lines, respectively. Introns corresponding to human NPSR are named I to VIII according to their positions in the amino acid sequence. The gene structure details of all sequences indicating exon-intron lengths, intron positions and phases are presented in Figure S3, S4 and Data S2.
Mentions: Bayesian tree of NPSR (red), invertebrate NPSR-like receptor (orange), CCAPR (green), V1AR (blue), V1BR (blue), OTR (blue), V2R (blue), GnRHR (vertebrate and invertebrate Gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor) and VPR (invertebrate vasopressin-like receptor) (blue) sequences. The tree was generated using the Bayesian approach in MrBayes 3.1.2 using JTT+F+I+G model. Bayesian posterior probabilities are marked near branches as a percentage and are used as confidence values of tree branches. Nodes were compressed to represent the animal lineages. Scale bar represents the number of estimated changes per site for a unit of branch length. The receptor group abbreviations, names and accession numbers of the sequences and common and binomial names of the species are as listed in Table S2. In this figure and in Figure 4, the sequence names marked with * and +symbols represent manually corrected sequences at the N terminus and C terminus, respectively. Sequence names marked with ‡ symbol in this figure represent fragmented sequences.

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the NPSR is most closely related to the invertebrate cardioacceleratory peptide receptor (CCAPR) and the group of vasopressin-like receptors.Gene structure features were congruent with the phylogenetic clustering and supported the orthology of NPSR to the invertebrate NPSR-like and CCAPR.The data can facilitate experimental studies aiming at deciphering the common features as well as those related to ligand binding and signal transduction processes specific to the NPSR.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, India.

ABSTRACT
The neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR) is a recently deorphanized member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is activated by the neuropeptide S (NPS). NPSR and NPS are widely expressed in central nervous system and are known to have crucial roles in asthma pathogenesis, locomotor activity, wakefulness, anxiety and food intake. The NPS-NPSR system was previously thought to have first evolved in the tetrapods. Here we examine the origin and the molecular evolution of the NPSR using in-silico comparative analyses and document the molecular basis of divergence of the NPSR from its closest vertebrate paralogs. In this study, NPSR-like sequences have been identified in a hemichordate and a cephalochordate, suggesting an earlier emergence of a NPSR-like sequence in the metazoan lineage. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the NPSR is most closely related to the invertebrate cardioacceleratory peptide receptor (CCAPR) and the group of vasopressin-like receptors. Gene structure features were congruent with the phylogenetic clustering and supported the orthology of NPSR to the invertebrate NPSR-like and CCAPR. A site-specific analysis between the vertebrate NPSR and the well studied paralogous vasopressin-like receptor subtypes revealed several putative amino acid sites that may account for the observed functional divergence between them. The data can facilitate experimental studies aiming at deciphering the common features as well as those related to ligand binding and signal transduction processes specific to the NPSR.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus