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Clonal propagation of Phyllanthus amarus: A hepatoprotector.

Xavier JR, Gnanam R, Murugan MP, Pappachan A - Pharmacogn Mag (2012)

Bottom Line: Seven to ten adventitious roots developed when the elongated microshoots were cultured in half strength MS medium with Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) (2.0 mg/Lmg/L) and NAA (1.0 mg/L mg/L) in 15-20 days after transfer.The rooted shoots acclimatized successfully to field conditions.A method for successful micropropagation of the valuable medicinal plant was established which will provide a better source for continuous supply of plants for manufacturing drugs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Scientist, Division of Biotechnology, Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), C/O 56 APO, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: The micropropagation protocol for Phyllanthus amarus, an important medicinal herb used widely for the treatment of hepatitis in ethnomedicinal systems, was standardized with shoot tip and single node explants.

Materials and methods: The micropropagation was carried out for the hyperproducing ecotype (phyllanthin content 463.828 ppm; hypophyllanthin content: 75.469 ppm) collected from Aanaikatti, Coimbatore, and grown in mist chamber, CPMB, TNAU. For micropropagation studies, the leaves were trimmed off and the shoot tips (6 mm long) and nodal segments (single node) were used for initiation.

Results: Shoot tips and single node explants gave a maximum of 6.00 and 7.00 multiple shoots per explant with Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) (1.0mg/L mg/L). Upon subculturing, a shoot length of around 7 cm with an average of eight internodes per shoot was observed after 20 days in the elongation medium supplemented with BAP (0.2 mg/Lmg/L) and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) (2.0 mg/L). Seven to ten adventitious roots developed when the elongated microshoots were cultured in half strength MS medium with Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) (2.0 mg/Lmg/L) and NAA (1.0 mg/L mg/L) in 15-20 days after transfer. The rooted shoots acclimatized successfully to field conditions.

Conclusion: A method for successful micropropagation of the valuable medicinal plant was established which will provide a better source for continuous supply of plants for manufacturing drugs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phyllanthus amarus – A hepatoprotective herb
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Figure 1: Phyllanthus amarus – A hepatoprotective herb

Mentions: Phyllanthus amarus, an important herbaceous medicinal plant, belongs to the large and complex genus Phyllanthus in the Euphorbiaceae family [Figure 1]. It is used in the traditional and folk medicines for the treatment of jaundice, asthma, hepatitis, tuberculosis, ulcer and urinary diseases. It is also used in stomach ailments like dyspepsia, colic, diarrhea, dysentery, dropsy, urinogenital problems and for external application in case of swelling and inflammation. P. amarus is distributed all over India, with varying medicinal quality. Hexane extract of P. amarus contains several hydrolyzable tannins and lignans, and the lignans such as niralin, nirtertralin and phyltetralin are strong inhibitors of protein kinase, responsible for its anticarcinogenic activity.[3] P. amarus was shown to be antihepatotoxic against carbon tetrachloride- and galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.[4] The antiviral activity of Phyllanthus species, particularly against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Wood chunk Hepatitis Virus (WHV), was reported earlier.[56] A preliminary study reported that 59% of the HBV carriers treated for 30 days with the preparation of P. amarus lost HBV surface antigen.[7] The inhibition of hepatitis B surface antigen secretion by the down regulation of HBV mRNA transcription and replication by P. amarus was reported earlier.[89] A comparative study was made of P. amarus compound and interferon in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B and it was found that P. amarus compound had remarkable effect on the recovery of liver function and inhibition of the replication of HBV in chronic viral hepatitis B.[10] The crude extracts of P. amarus showed antigenotoxic action on tannery effluents treated Vicia faba was reported.[11] 10 lignans and a series of azalignans prepared from phyllanthin of P. amarus were structurally similar to two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase inhibitors and showed antiviral activity against R5 pseudotype virus.[12] Antiviral activity of plants belonging to the Phyllanthus species against viruses other than HBV have also been reported. The organic and aqueous extracts of P. amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus arbiculatus and Phyllanthus pseudo-conami were tested for their plaque inhibition in mouse cell cultures of Sindbis virus (SV) and the herpesvirus murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV).[13] Both the types of extracts of all the four species inhibited MCMV when given prior to infection. In addition, the organic extracts showed effects post infection of SV. The extracts of less common species such as Phyllanthus mimicus and Phyllanthus odontadenius also were reported to have anti-DNAp activity.[14] The lignans phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin enhanced the cytotoxic responses with cultured multi-drug resistant cells.[15] The hydro-alcoholic extracts of five Ayurvedic medicinal plants, pericarp of Terminalia chebula, rhizome of Acorus calamus, stem bark of Bauhinia variegate, whole plant of P. amarus, and root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on 14 cancer cell lines. These plant extracts when tested by sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay were found to be active against prostrate cancer cell line (DU145), except G. glabra.[16]


Clonal propagation of Phyllanthus amarus: A hepatoprotector.

Xavier JR, Gnanam R, Murugan MP, Pappachan A - Pharmacogn Mag (2012)

Phyllanthus amarus – A hepatoprotective herb
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3307208&req=5

Figure 1: Phyllanthus amarus – A hepatoprotective herb
Mentions: Phyllanthus amarus, an important herbaceous medicinal plant, belongs to the large and complex genus Phyllanthus in the Euphorbiaceae family [Figure 1]. It is used in the traditional and folk medicines for the treatment of jaundice, asthma, hepatitis, tuberculosis, ulcer and urinary diseases. It is also used in stomach ailments like dyspepsia, colic, diarrhea, dysentery, dropsy, urinogenital problems and for external application in case of swelling and inflammation. P. amarus is distributed all over India, with varying medicinal quality. Hexane extract of P. amarus contains several hydrolyzable tannins and lignans, and the lignans such as niralin, nirtertralin and phyltetralin are strong inhibitors of protein kinase, responsible for its anticarcinogenic activity.[3] P. amarus was shown to be antihepatotoxic against carbon tetrachloride- and galactosamine-induced hepatotoxicity in primary cultured rat hepatocytes.[4] The antiviral activity of Phyllanthus species, particularly against hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Wood chunk Hepatitis Virus (WHV), was reported earlier.[56] A preliminary study reported that 59% of the HBV carriers treated for 30 days with the preparation of P. amarus lost HBV surface antigen.[7] The inhibition of hepatitis B surface antigen secretion by the down regulation of HBV mRNA transcription and replication by P. amarus was reported earlier.[89] A comparative study was made of P. amarus compound and interferon in the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis B and it was found that P. amarus compound had remarkable effect on the recovery of liver function and inhibition of the replication of HBV in chronic viral hepatitis B.[10] The crude extracts of P. amarus showed antigenotoxic action on tannery effluents treated Vicia faba was reported.[11] 10 lignans and a series of azalignans prepared from phyllanthin of P. amarus were structurally similar to two human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase inhibitors and showed antiviral activity against R5 pseudotype virus.[12] Antiviral activity of plants belonging to the Phyllanthus species against viruses other than HBV have also been reported. The organic and aqueous extracts of P. amarus, Phyllanthus urinaria, Phyllanthus arbiculatus and Phyllanthus pseudo-conami were tested for their plaque inhibition in mouse cell cultures of Sindbis virus (SV) and the herpesvirus murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV).[13] Both the types of extracts of all the four species inhibited MCMV when given prior to infection. In addition, the organic extracts showed effects post infection of SV. The extracts of less common species such as Phyllanthus mimicus and Phyllanthus odontadenius also were reported to have anti-DNAp activity.[14] The lignans phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin enhanced the cytotoxic responses with cultured multi-drug resistant cells.[15] The hydro-alcoholic extracts of five Ayurvedic medicinal plants, pericarp of Terminalia chebula, rhizome of Acorus calamus, stem bark of Bauhinia variegate, whole plant of P. amarus, and root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, were evaluated for their antiproliferative activity on 14 cancer cell lines. These plant extracts when tested by sulforhodamine-B (SRB) assay were found to be active against prostrate cancer cell line (DU145), except G. glabra.[16]

Bottom Line: Seven to ten adventitious roots developed when the elongated microshoots were cultured in half strength MS medium with Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) (2.0 mg/Lmg/L) and NAA (1.0 mg/L mg/L) in 15-20 days after transfer.The rooted shoots acclimatized successfully to field conditions.A method for successful micropropagation of the valuable medicinal plant was established which will provide a better source for continuous supply of plants for manufacturing drugs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Scientist, Division of Biotechnology, Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), C/O 56 APO, Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

ABSTRACT

Background: The micropropagation protocol for Phyllanthus amarus, an important medicinal herb used widely for the treatment of hepatitis in ethnomedicinal systems, was standardized with shoot tip and single node explants.

Materials and methods: The micropropagation was carried out for the hyperproducing ecotype (phyllanthin content 463.828 ppm; hypophyllanthin content: 75.469 ppm) collected from Aanaikatti, Coimbatore, and grown in mist chamber, CPMB, TNAU. For micropropagation studies, the leaves were trimmed off and the shoot tips (6 mm long) and nodal segments (single node) were used for initiation.

Results: Shoot tips and single node explants gave a maximum of 6.00 and 7.00 multiple shoots per explant with Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) (1.0mg/L mg/L). Upon subculturing, a shoot length of around 7 cm with an average of eight internodes per shoot was observed after 20 days in the elongation medium supplemented with BAP (0.2 mg/Lmg/L) and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) (2.0 mg/L). Seven to ten adventitious roots developed when the elongated microshoots were cultured in half strength MS medium with Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) (2.0 mg/Lmg/L) and NAA (1.0 mg/L mg/L) in 15-20 days after transfer. The rooted shoots acclimatized successfully to field conditions.

Conclusion: A method for successful micropropagation of the valuable medicinal plant was established which will provide a better source for continuous supply of plants for manufacturing drugs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus