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Pest insect olfaction in an insecticide-contaminated environment: info-disruption or hormesis effect.

Tricoire-Leignel H, Thany SH, Gadenne C, Anton S - Front Physiol (2012)

Bottom Line: The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment.However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities.The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire Récepteurs et Canaux Ioniques Membranaires, UPRES-EA 2647 USC INRA 1330, Faculté des Sciences, Université d'Angers Angers, France.

ABSTRACT
Most animals, including pest insects, live in an "odor world" and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the observed and suspected effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of moths.
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Figure 1: Schematic representation of the observed and suspected effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of moths.

Mentions: In crop protection, pest insect populations are limited through chemical treatments involving either neurotoxic molecules or insect growth regulators (IGRs). In both cases, residues arise in the environment, and the literature reviewed here shows that the effects of such sublethal doses of insecticides are highly dose-dependent. Indeed, the toxicological paradox of hormesis was identified in various insect species and is suggested as a possible cause of pest insect resurgence. The mechanisms underlying these dose-dependent effects are, however, largely unknown. The well-described olfactory system of insects, which hosts targets for different neurotoxic molecules, will be very useful to study dose-dependent changes caused by insecticides, because insects highly rely on their olfactory system and exhibit stereotyped and easy to quantify olfactory-guided behaviors. In moths, which count for many agricultural pest insects, the highly specific and well-described sex pheromone system will provide an excellent model system to investigate mechanisms of low-dose insecticide action (Figure 1). However, effects on orientation toward host plant odors should also be considered, specifically in females, because they could have an important impact on reproductive success. Evidently, understanding hormetic pesticide effects on “beneficial” insects, such as pollinators, might also help in the future to limit their decline. In nature, the presence of insecticides will coincide with other signals emitted by the environment or conspecifics and internal signals such as hormones. The hormone-, neuromodulator-, and experience-controlled plasticity of the olfactory system described in moths provides an additional dimension to understand the action of low doses of different insecticides in a physiological and environmental context.


Pest insect olfaction in an insecticide-contaminated environment: info-disruption or hormesis effect.

Tricoire-Leignel H, Thany SH, Gadenne C, Anton S - Front Physiol (2012)

Schematic representation of the observed and suspected effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of moths.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3307139&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic representation of the observed and suspected effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of moths.
Mentions: In crop protection, pest insect populations are limited through chemical treatments involving either neurotoxic molecules or insect growth regulators (IGRs). In both cases, residues arise in the environment, and the literature reviewed here shows that the effects of such sublethal doses of insecticides are highly dose-dependent. Indeed, the toxicological paradox of hormesis was identified in various insect species and is suggested as a possible cause of pest insect resurgence. The mechanisms underlying these dose-dependent effects are, however, largely unknown. The well-described olfactory system of insects, which hosts targets for different neurotoxic molecules, will be very useful to study dose-dependent changes caused by insecticides, because insects highly rely on their olfactory system and exhibit stereotyped and easy to quantify olfactory-guided behaviors. In moths, which count for many agricultural pest insects, the highly specific and well-described sex pheromone system will provide an excellent model system to investigate mechanisms of low-dose insecticide action (Figure 1). However, effects on orientation toward host plant odors should also be considered, specifically in females, because they could have an important impact on reproductive success. Evidently, understanding hormetic pesticide effects on “beneficial” insects, such as pollinators, might also help in the future to limit their decline. In nature, the presence of insecticides will coincide with other signals emitted by the environment or conspecifics and internal signals such as hormones. The hormone-, neuromodulator-, and experience-controlled plasticity of the olfactory system described in moths provides an additional dimension to understand the action of low doses of different insecticides in a physiological and environmental context.

Bottom Line: The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment.However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities.The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire Récepteurs et Canaux Ioniques Membranaires, UPRES-EA 2647 USC INRA 1330, Faculté des Sciences, Université d'Angers Angers, France.

ABSTRACT
Most animals, including pest insects, live in an "odor world" and depend strongly on chemical stimuli to get information on their biotic and abiotic environment. Although integrated pest management strategies including the use of insect growth regulators (IGRs) are increasingly developed, most insect pest treatments rely on neurotoxic chemicals. These molecules are known to disrupt synaptic transmission, affecting therefore sensory systems. The wide-spread use of neurotoxic insecticides and the growing use of IGRs result in residual accumulation of low concentrations in the environment. These insecticide residues could act as an "info-disruptor" by modifying the chemical communication system, and therefore decrease chances of reproduction in target insects. However, residues can also induce a non-expected hormesis effect by enhancing reproduction abilities. Low insecticide doses might thus induce adaptive processes in the olfactory pathway of target insects, favoring the development of resistance. The effect of sublethal doses of insecticides has mainly been studied in beneficial insects such as honeybees. We review here what is known on the effects of sublethal doses of insecticides on the olfactory system of insect pests.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus