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Diverse Roles of JNK and MKK Pathways in the Brain.

Yamasaki T, Kawasaki H, Nishina H - J Signal Transduct (2012)

Bottom Line: The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase (JNK) plays important roles in a broad range of physiological processes.Phenotypic differences between knockouts of MKK4 and MKK7 have also been observed, suggesting that the JNK signaling pathway in the brain has a complex nature and is intricately regulated.This paper summarizes the functional properties of the major JNK signaling components in the developing and adult brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase (JNK) plays important roles in a broad range of physiological processes. JNK is controlled by two upstream regulators, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) 4 and MKK7, which are activated by various MAPKKKs. Studies employing knockout mice have demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway is involved in diverse phenomena in the brain, regulating brain development and maintenance as well as animal metabolism and behavior. Furthermore, examination of single or combined knockout mice of Jnk1, Jnk2, and Jnk3 has revealed both functional differences and redundancy among JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3. Phenotypic differences between knockouts of MKK4 and MKK7 have also been observed, suggesting that the JNK signaling pathway in the brain has a complex nature and is intricately regulated. This paper summarizes the functional properties of the major JNK signaling components in the developing and adult brain.

No MeSH data available.


The JNK signaling pathway in the mammalian brain. A MAPKKK, such as DLK, ASK, or MLK, phosphorylates (P) and activates a MAPKK such as MKK4 or MKK7. An activated MAPKK in turn phosphorylates and activates a MAPK such as JNK1, JNK2, or JNK3. Activated JNKs then regulate various phenomena in the brain.
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fig1: The JNK signaling pathway in the mammalian brain. A MAPKKK, such as DLK, ASK, or MLK, phosphorylates (P) and activates a MAPKK such as MKK4 or MKK7. An activated MAPKK in turn phosphorylates and activates a MAPK such as JNK1, JNK2, or JNK3. Activated JNKs then regulate various phenomena in the brain.

Mentions: In most mammalian cell types, JNK activation is tightly controlled and employed at moderate levels in specific circumstances. In contrast, JNK signaling in the brain is highly and constitutively activated. Studies of gene knockout (KO) mice lacking JNKs or their upstream kinases have shown that this sustained activation is necessary to fulfil the diverse and essential roles that JNK signaling plays in the brain (Figure 1). This paper summarizes the phenotypes of these mutant animals and discusses what they reveal about the regulation and various functions of JNK and MKK signaling in the brain.


Diverse Roles of JNK and MKK Pathways in the Brain.

Yamasaki T, Kawasaki H, Nishina H - J Signal Transduct (2012)

The JNK signaling pathway in the mammalian brain. A MAPKKK, such as DLK, ASK, or MLK, phosphorylates (P) and activates a MAPKK such as MKK4 or MKK7. An activated MAPKK in turn phosphorylates and activates a MAPK such as JNK1, JNK2, or JNK3. Activated JNKs then regulate various phenomena in the brain.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3307000&req=5

fig1: The JNK signaling pathway in the mammalian brain. A MAPKKK, such as DLK, ASK, or MLK, phosphorylates (P) and activates a MAPKK such as MKK4 or MKK7. An activated MAPKK in turn phosphorylates and activates a MAPK such as JNK1, JNK2, or JNK3. Activated JNKs then regulate various phenomena in the brain.
Mentions: In most mammalian cell types, JNK activation is tightly controlled and employed at moderate levels in specific circumstances. In contrast, JNK signaling in the brain is highly and constitutively activated. Studies of gene knockout (KO) mice lacking JNKs or their upstream kinases have shown that this sustained activation is necessary to fulfil the diverse and essential roles that JNK signaling plays in the brain (Figure 1). This paper summarizes the phenotypes of these mutant animals and discusses what they reveal about the regulation and various functions of JNK and MKK signaling in the brain.

Bottom Line: The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase (JNK) plays important roles in a broad range of physiological processes.Phenotypic differences between knockouts of MKK4 and MKK7 have also been observed, suggesting that the JNK signaling pathway in the brain has a complex nature and is intricately regulated.This paper summarizes the functional properties of the major JNK signaling components in the developing and adult brain.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Medical Research Institute, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8510, Japan.

ABSTRACT
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal protein kinase (JNK) plays important roles in a broad range of physiological processes. JNK is controlled by two upstream regulators, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) 4 and MKK7, which are activated by various MAPKKKs. Studies employing knockout mice have demonstrated that the JNK signaling pathway is involved in diverse phenomena in the brain, regulating brain development and maintenance as well as animal metabolism and behavior. Furthermore, examination of single or combined knockout mice of Jnk1, Jnk2, and Jnk3 has revealed both functional differences and redundancy among JNK1, JNK2, and JNK3. Phenotypic differences between knockouts of MKK4 and MKK7 have also been observed, suggesting that the JNK signaling pathway in the brain has a complex nature and is intricately regulated. This paper summarizes the functional properties of the major JNK signaling components in the developing and adult brain.

No MeSH data available.