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Preimaginal stages of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): an invasive pest on ash trees (Fraxinus).

Chamorro ML, Volkovitsh MG, Poland TM, Haack RA, Lingafelter SW - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: A combination of 14 character states were identified that serve to identify larvae of A. planipennis.Our results support the segregation of Agrilus larvae into two informal assemblages based on characters of the mouthparts, prothorax, and abdomen: the A. viridis and A. ater assemblages, with A. planipennis being more similar to the former.Additional evidence is provided in favor of excluding A. planipennis from the subgenus Uragrilus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Washington, DC, United States of America. lourdes.chamorro@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This study provides the most detailed description of the immature stages of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire to date and illustrates suites of larval characters useful in distinguishing among Agrilus Curtis species and instars. Immature stages of eight species of Agrilus were examined and imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy. For A. planipennis all preimaginal stages (egg, instars I-IV, prepupa and pupa) were described. A combination of 14 character states were identified that serve to identify larvae of A. planipennis. Our results support the segregation of Agrilus larvae into two informal assemblages based on characters of the mouthparts, prothorax, and abdomen: the A. viridis and A. ater assemblages, with A. planipennis being more similar to the former. Additional evidence is provided in favor of excluding A. planipennis from the subgenus Uragrilus.

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Epistome, labrum and palatine sclerites of Agrilus planipennis instars I, II, III, IV.A, instar I, epistome and labrum; B, instar I, labrum and palatine sclerites; C, instar II, epistome and labrum; D, instar II, labrum and palatine sclerites; E, instar III, epistome and labrum; F, instar III, labrum and palatine sclerites; G, prepupa, epistome and labrum; H, instar IV, labrum.
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pone-0033185-g002: Epistome, labrum and palatine sclerites of Agrilus planipennis instars I, II, III, IV.A, instar I, epistome and labrum; B, instar I, labrum and palatine sclerites; C, instar II, epistome and labrum; D, instar II, labrum and palatine sclerites; E, instar III, epistome and labrum; F, instar III, labrum and palatine sclerites; G, prepupa, epistome and labrum; H, instar IV, labrum.

Mentions: Volkovitsh & Hawkeswood [24] segregated Agrilus larvae into two informal groups or assemblages based on 1) presence or absence of microsetal areas along the anterior margin of the labrum and 2) of distinct zones of microspinulae concentrated on the internal surface of the maxillae (Figure 1): the A. viridis species-assemblage and A. ater species-assemblage. Based on their study, Volkovitsh & Hawkeswood [24] included in the A. viridis assemblage the following species: A. (Agrilus) viridis (Linnaeus) (Palearctic) (the type species of the genus); A. (Agrilus) ribesi Schaefer (Palearctic); A. (Agrilus) cuprescens (Ménétries) (Palearctic/Nearctic); A. (Quercuagrilus) sulcicollis Lacordaire (Palearctic; recently introduced to Canada and USA [25], [26]); A. (Quercuagrilus) hastulifer Ratzeburg (Palearctic); and A. (Quercuagrilus) angustulus (Illiger) (Palearctic). Species in the A. viridis assemblage have a glabrous anterior margin of the labrum (Figures 1, 2, 3), fringe of microspinulae between maxillary stipes and base of maxillary palpus, and microspinulae concentrated subapically on the mala and internal surface of the stipes and cardo (Figure 1b) [24]. Species included by Volkovitsh & Hawkeswood [24] in the A. ater assemblage were: A. (Uragrilus) ater (Linnaeus, 1767) (Palearctic) (Figures 3e, 3k, 4); A. (Agrilus) australasiae Laporte & Gory (Australasian) (Figures 3g, 3l, 4e, 5); and A. (Anambus) biguttatus (Fabricius) (Palearctic) (Figures 3f, 3j, 4f, 5d, 5g). These species have a dense microsetal/microspinulated area on the anterior margin of the labrum, the epipharynx (Figures 3b, 3d–3g), and the internal surface of the maxillae, more than species in the A. viridis assemblage.


Preimaginal stages of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): an invasive pest on ash trees (Fraxinus).

Chamorro ML, Volkovitsh MG, Poland TM, Haack RA, Lingafelter SW - PLoS ONE (2012)

Epistome, labrum and palatine sclerites of Agrilus planipennis instars I, II, III, IV.A, instar I, epistome and labrum; B, instar I, labrum and palatine sclerites; C, instar II, epistome and labrum; D, instar II, labrum and palatine sclerites; E, instar III, epistome and labrum; F, instar III, labrum and palatine sclerites; G, prepupa, epistome and labrum; H, instar IV, labrum.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3306392&req=5

pone-0033185-g002: Epistome, labrum and palatine sclerites of Agrilus planipennis instars I, II, III, IV.A, instar I, epistome and labrum; B, instar I, labrum and palatine sclerites; C, instar II, epistome and labrum; D, instar II, labrum and palatine sclerites; E, instar III, epistome and labrum; F, instar III, labrum and palatine sclerites; G, prepupa, epistome and labrum; H, instar IV, labrum.
Mentions: Volkovitsh & Hawkeswood [24] segregated Agrilus larvae into two informal groups or assemblages based on 1) presence or absence of microsetal areas along the anterior margin of the labrum and 2) of distinct zones of microspinulae concentrated on the internal surface of the maxillae (Figure 1): the A. viridis species-assemblage and A. ater species-assemblage. Based on their study, Volkovitsh & Hawkeswood [24] included in the A. viridis assemblage the following species: A. (Agrilus) viridis (Linnaeus) (Palearctic) (the type species of the genus); A. (Agrilus) ribesi Schaefer (Palearctic); A. (Agrilus) cuprescens (Ménétries) (Palearctic/Nearctic); A. (Quercuagrilus) sulcicollis Lacordaire (Palearctic; recently introduced to Canada and USA [25], [26]); A. (Quercuagrilus) hastulifer Ratzeburg (Palearctic); and A. (Quercuagrilus) angustulus (Illiger) (Palearctic). Species in the A. viridis assemblage have a glabrous anterior margin of the labrum (Figures 1, 2, 3), fringe of microspinulae between maxillary stipes and base of maxillary palpus, and microspinulae concentrated subapically on the mala and internal surface of the stipes and cardo (Figure 1b) [24]. Species included by Volkovitsh & Hawkeswood [24] in the A. ater assemblage were: A. (Uragrilus) ater (Linnaeus, 1767) (Palearctic) (Figures 3e, 3k, 4); A. (Agrilus) australasiae Laporte & Gory (Australasian) (Figures 3g, 3l, 4e, 5); and A. (Anambus) biguttatus (Fabricius) (Palearctic) (Figures 3f, 3j, 4f, 5d, 5g). These species have a dense microsetal/microspinulated area on the anterior margin of the labrum, the epipharynx (Figures 3b, 3d–3g), and the internal surface of the maxillae, more than species in the A. viridis assemblage.

Bottom Line: A combination of 14 character states were identified that serve to identify larvae of A. planipennis.Our results support the segregation of Agrilus larvae into two informal assemblages based on characters of the mouthparts, prothorax, and abdomen: the A. viridis and A. ater assemblages, with A. planipennis being more similar to the former.Additional evidence is provided in favor of excluding A. planipennis from the subgenus Uragrilus.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Washington, DC, United States of America. lourdes.chamorro@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This study provides the most detailed description of the immature stages of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire to date and illustrates suites of larval characters useful in distinguishing among Agrilus Curtis species and instars. Immature stages of eight species of Agrilus were examined and imaged using light and scanning electron microscopy. For A. planipennis all preimaginal stages (egg, instars I-IV, prepupa and pupa) were described. A combination of 14 character states were identified that serve to identify larvae of A. planipennis. Our results support the segregation of Agrilus larvae into two informal assemblages based on characters of the mouthparts, prothorax, and abdomen: the A. viridis and A. ater assemblages, with A. planipennis being more similar to the former. Additional evidence is provided in favor of excluding A. planipennis from the subgenus Uragrilus.

Show MeSH