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Species association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in non-human apes; evidence for recombination between gorilla and chimpanzee variants.

Lyons S, Sharp C, LeBreton M, Djoko CF, Kiyang JA, Lankester F, Bibila TG, Tamoufé U, Fair J, Wolfe ND, Simmonds P - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population.Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies.Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Immunology, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. S.M.K.Lyons@sms.ed.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan), Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons) and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey). To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa) or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3%) and two from 11 gorillas (18%) were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency), while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

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Grouping Scan analysis.Sequence fragments of 250 bases incrementing by 100 bases with 100 bootstrap replicates, were used to compare and analyse (a) P.t.troglodytes/P.t.ellioti recombinant FJ98098.1 (b) P.t.ellioti/P.t.troglodytes recombinant FJ98099.1 (c) P.t.schweinfurthii isolate A498266; (d) P.t.troglodytes AM117396 (e) P.t.troglodytes recombinant AB046525 (f) study recombinant Gorilla gorilla HBV sequence (ECO50003); to sequence groups from Gorilla gorilla (red), Pan troglodytes ellioti (blue), Pan troglodytes troglodytes (green), Pan troglodytes verus (yellow), Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii (purple) and human genotype HBV/C (light blue) with respect to A498266. Values >0.5 indicate clustering within the indicated group.
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pone-0033430-g003: Grouping Scan analysis.Sequence fragments of 250 bases incrementing by 100 bases with 100 bootstrap replicates, were used to compare and analyse (a) P.t.troglodytes/P.t.ellioti recombinant FJ98098.1 (b) P.t.ellioti/P.t.troglodytes recombinant FJ98099.1 (c) P.t.schweinfurthii isolate A498266; (d) P.t.troglodytes AM117396 (e) P.t.troglodytes recombinant AB046525 (f) study recombinant Gorilla gorilla HBV sequence (ECO50003); to sequence groups from Gorilla gorilla (red), Pan troglodytes ellioti (blue), Pan troglodytes troglodytes (green), Pan troglodytes verus (yellow), Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii (purple) and human genotype HBV/C (light blue) with respect to A498266. Values >0.5 indicate clustering within the indicated group.

Mentions: To confirm the position and phylogenetic grouping of the putative recombinant sequences identified by the TreeOrder scan, a Grouping Scan was performed [22]. This examines how deeply embedded the test sequence is within clades formed by non-recombinant control sequences assigned into species-associated groups (P.t.e, P.t.t., P.t.v and Gorilla gorilla) (Fig. 3). This method identified two changes in grouping of the query sequence, ECO50003LIP3 at position 1560 where it changed grouping from the gorilla HBV clade to the P. t. ellioti sub-species clade and a reversion to the gorilla clade at position 2120. Grouping scan analysis of recombinant sequences A498266 and FJ98098.1 provides substantial support for the formation of recombinant regions between positions 550–1050 nt and 820–1300 nt respectively. However, the Tree Order or grouping scan methods provided no evidence for recombination in the P.t.troglodytes derived sequence, AM117396 (based on its grouping in Fig. 1a) between chimpanzee sub-species.


Species association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in non-human apes; evidence for recombination between gorilla and chimpanzee variants.

Lyons S, Sharp C, LeBreton M, Djoko CF, Kiyang JA, Lankester F, Bibila TG, Tamoufé U, Fair J, Wolfe ND, Simmonds P - PLoS ONE (2012)

Grouping Scan analysis.Sequence fragments of 250 bases incrementing by 100 bases with 100 bootstrap replicates, were used to compare and analyse (a) P.t.troglodytes/P.t.ellioti recombinant FJ98098.1 (b) P.t.ellioti/P.t.troglodytes recombinant FJ98099.1 (c) P.t.schweinfurthii isolate A498266; (d) P.t.troglodytes AM117396 (e) P.t.troglodytes recombinant AB046525 (f) study recombinant Gorilla gorilla HBV sequence (ECO50003); to sequence groups from Gorilla gorilla (red), Pan troglodytes ellioti (blue), Pan troglodytes troglodytes (green), Pan troglodytes verus (yellow), Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii (purple) and human genotype HBV/C (light blue) with respect to A498266. Values >0.5 indicate clustering within the indicated group.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3303819&req=5

pone-0033430-g003: Grouping Scan analysis.Sequence fragments of 250 bases incrementing by 100 bases with 100 bootstrap replicates, were used to compare and analyse (a) P.t.troglodytes/P.t.ellioti recombinant FJ98098.1 (b) P.t.ellioti/P.t.troglodytes recombinant FJ98099.1 (c) P.t.schweinfurthii isolate A498266; (d) P.t.troglodytes AM117396 (e) P.t.troglodytes recombinant AB046525 (f) study recombinant Gorilla gorilla HBV sequence (ECO50003); to sequence groups from Gorilla gorilla (red), Pan troglodytes ellioti (blue), Pan troglodytes troglodytes (green), Pan troglodytes verus (yellow), Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii (purple) and human genotype HBV/C (light blue) with respect to A498266. Values >0.5 indicate clustering within the indicated group.
Mentions: To confirm the position and phylogenetic grouping of the putative recombinant sequences identified by the TreeOrder scan, a Grouping Scan was performed [22]. This examines how deeply embedded the test sequence is within clades formed by non-recombinant control sequences assigned into species-associated groups (P.t.e, P.t.t., P.t.v and Gorilla gorilla) (Fig. 3). This method identified two changes in grouping of the query sequence, ECO50003LIP3 at position 1560 where it changed grouping from the gorilla HBV clade to the P. t. ellioti sub-species clade and a reversion to the gorilla clade at position 2120. Grouping scan analysis of recombinant sequences A498266 and FJ98098.1 provides substantial support for the formation of recombinant regions between positions 550–1050 nt and 820–1300 nt respectively. However, the Tree Order or grouping scan methods provided no evidence for recombination in the P.t.troglodytes derived sequence, AM117396 (based on its grouping in Fig. 1a) between chimpanzee sub-species.

Bottom Line: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population.Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies.Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Immunology, Infection and Evolution, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. S.M.K.Lyons@sms.ed.ac.uk

ABSTRACT
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla), Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee), Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan), Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons) and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey). To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa) or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3%) and two from 11 gorillas (18%) were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency), while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus