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Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

Bolle LJ, de Jong CA, Bierman SM, van Beek PJ, van Keeken OA, Wessels PW, van Damme CJ, Winter HV, de Haan D, Dekeling RP - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector.Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field.Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IMARES, IJmuiden, The Netherlands. loes.bolle@wur.nl

ABSTRACT
In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-)lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2) (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa) and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2)s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea) larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2)s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The ‘larvaebrator’ design.The larvaebrator is a device specifically designed to enable controlled exposure of fish larvae to sound in a laboratory setting.
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pone-0033052-g001: The ‘larvaebrator’ design.The larvaebrator is a device specifically designed to enable controlled exposure of fish larvae to sound in a laboratory setting.

Mentions: The larvaebrator consists of an underwater sound source (LFPX-4 projector) on which a rigid-walled (28 mm thick steel), cylindrical chamber (110 mm diameter, 160 mm high) is placed (Figure 1). The chamber is filled with sea water (±1.25 litre) and up to 100 fish larvae can be placed in the chamber. The piston of the projector is also the bottom of the chamber and can directly excite the water with a given acoustic signal. Two configurations can be used; the test chamber is either completely filled with water, so that the projector mainly compresses the enclosed volume of water (pressure excitation), or a small layer of air is left at the top of the test chamber, so that the water in the chamber can move while compressing the air volume (velocity excitation). The chamber dimensions are much smaller than the shortest acoustic wavelength of interest (about 1.5 m at the maximum frequency of 1 kHz). Consequently, the larvae in the test chamber are simultaneously exposed to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Sound pressure in the chamber is measured by four pressure transducers, mounted flush in the wall of the chamber. Sound particle velocity is measured by an accelerometer, mounted on the piston of the projector. A static pressure source (an air compressor) is incorporated in the device to enable applying static overpressure inside the chamber (Figure 1). The static overpressure can be varied between 0 and 3 bar, thus simulating a depth range of 0 to 30 m. The experiments in this study were carried out without static overpressure, because the greatest effect of sound pressure is expected to occur at a low static pressure (T. Carlson, unpublished results).


Common sole larvae survive high levels of pile-driving sound in controlled exposure experiments.

Bolle LJ, de Jong CA, Bierman SM, van Beek PJ, van Keeken OA, Wessels PW, van Damme CJ, Winter HV, de Haan D, Dekeling RP - PLoS ONE (2012)

The ‘larvaebrator’ design.The larvaebrator is a device specifically designed to enable controlled exposure of fish larvae to sound in a laboratory setting.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3303794&req=5

pone-0033052-g001: The ‘larvaebrator’ design.The larvaebrator is a device specifically designed to enable controlled exposure of fish larvae to sound in a laboratory setting.
Mentions: The larvaebrator consists of an underwater sound source (LFPX-4 projector) on which a rigid-walled (28 mm thick steel), cylindrical chamber (110 mm diameter, 160 mm high) is placed (Figure 1). The chamber is filled with sea water (±1.25 litre) and up to 100 fish larvae can be placed in the chamber. The piston of the projector is also the bottom of the chamber and can directly excite the water with a given acoustic signal. Two configurations can be used; the test chamber is either completely filled with water, so that the projector mainly compresses the enclosed volume of water (pressure excitation), or a small layer of air is left at the top of the test chamber, so that the water in the chamber can move while compressing the air volume (velocity excitation). The chamber dimensions are much smaller than the shortest acoustic wavelength of interest (about 1.5 m at the maximum frequency of 1 kHz). Consequently, the larvae in the test chamber are simultaneously exposed to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Sound pressure in the chamber is measured by four pressure transducers, mounted flush in the wall of the chamber. Sound particle velocity is measured by an accelerometer, mounted on the piston of the projector. A static pressure source (an air compressor) is incorporated in the device to enable applying static overpressure inside the chamber (Figure 1). The static overpressure can be varied between 0 and 3 bar, thus simulating a depth range of 0 to 30 m. The experiments in this study were carried out without static overpressure, because the greatest effect of sound pressure is expected to occur at a low static pressure (T. Carlson, unpublished results).

Bottom Line: It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector.Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field.Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: IMARES, IJmuiden, The Netherlands. loes.bolle@wur.nl

ABSTRACT
In view of the rapid extension of offshore wind farms, there is an urgent need to improve our knowledge on possible adverse effects of underwater sound generated by pile-driving. Mortality and injuries have been observed in fish exposed to loud impulse sounds, but knowledge on the sound levels at which (sub-)lethal effects occur is limited for juvenile and adult fish, and virtually non-existent for fish eggs and larvae. A device was developed in which fish larvae can be exposed to underwater sound. It consists of a rigid-walled cylindrical chamber driven by an electro-dynamical sound projector. Samples of up to 100 larvae can be exposed simultaneously to a homogeneously distributed sound pressure and particle velocity field. Recorded pile-driving sounds could be reproduced accurately in the frequency range between 50 and 1000 Hz, at zero to peak pressure levels up to 210 dB re 1µPa(2) (zero to peak pressures up to 32 kPa) and single pulse sound exposure levels up to 186 dB re 1µPa(2)s. The device was used to examine lethal effects of sound exposure in common sole (Solea solea) larvae. Different developmental stages were exposed to various levels and durations of pile-driving sound. The highest cumulative sound exposure level applied was 206 dB re 1µPa(2)s, which corresponds to 100 strikes at a distance of 100 m from a typical North Sea pile-driving site. The results showed no statistically significant differences in mortality between exposure and control groups at sound exposure levels which were well above the US interim criteria for non-auditory tissue damage in fish. Although our findings cannot be extrapolated to fish larvae in general, as interspecific differences in vulnerability to sound exposure may occur, they do indicate that previous assumptions and criteria may need to be revised.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus