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Antidiabetic Effect of an Active Components Group from Ilex kudingcha and Its Chemical Composition.

Song C, Xie C, Zhou Z, Yu S, Fang N - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Bottom Line: Using LC-DAD/HR-ESI-TOF-MS, six major components were identified in ACG.It is reasonable to assume that antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha against hyperglycemia resulted from these six major components.Also, synergistic effects among their compounds may exist in the antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Resource and Compound Prescription, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, 1 Huang-jia-hu, Wuhan 430065, China.

ABSTRACT
The leaves of Ilex kudingcha are used as an ethnomedicine in the treatment of symptoms related with diabetes mellitus and obesity throughout the centuries in China. The present study investigated the antidiabetic activities of an active components group (ACG) obtained from Ilex kudingcha in alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic mice. ACG significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum glycaemic and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and glucokinase were upregulated significantly, while fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic enzyme was downregulated in diabetic mice after treatment of ACG. These findings clearly provided evidences regarding the antidiabetic potentials of ACG from Ilex kudingcha. Using LC-DAD/HR-ESI-TOF-MS, six major components were identified in ACG. They are three dicaffeoylquinic acids that have been reported previously, and three new triterpenoid saponins, which were the first time to be identified in Ilex kudingcha. It is reasonable to assume that antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha against hyperglycemia resulted from these six major components. Also, synergistic effects among their compounds may exist in the antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Structures of the flavonoids and triterpenoid saponins identified or characterized in ACG. *ara: arabinoside; rha: rhamnoside; glc: glucoside; glcu: glucuronide.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection


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fig8: Structures of the flavonoids and triterpenoid saponins identified or characterized in ACG. *ara: arabinoside; rha: rhamnoside; glc: glucoside; glcu: glucuronide.

Mentions: Compound 11 had the [M-H]−ion at m/z 745.4247 (calculated for C41H62O12, 746.4241) was identified as 3-O-α-L rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-arabinopy-ranosyl-α-kudinlactone based on product ions from CID of [M-146]− and [M-H-146-132]− (Table 4 and Figure 8), as reported in Ilex kudingcha previously [15]. HR-ESI-MS of compound 12 exhibited an [M-H]− ion at m/z 1073.5695 corresponding to C53H85O22 (calculated for C53H86O22, 1074.5611), and four ions at [M-H-162]−, [M-H-162-162]−, [M-H-162-162-146]−, and [M-H-162-162-146-132]− indicated four sugars in the structure. It showed similar CID fragmentation with macranthoside B [16]. The MS/MS data from 13 were almost identical to those of 12 (Table 4), and it was likely that 13 is a stereoisomer of 12 due to different configuration of the triterpene ester. Compound 15 exhibited an [M-H]− ion at m/z 971.4936 corresponding to C48H75O20 (calculated for C48H76O20 [M-H]−, 972.4929). Its MS/MS spectrum gave two ions of [M-H-162]− and [M-H-162-162]−, strongly suggesting the presence of two sugar moieties. HR-ESI-MS of compound 16 displayed the [M-H]− ion at m/z 955.4991 corresponding to C48H75O19 (calculated for C48H76O19 [M-H]−, 956.4981). Like compound 15, the loss of 162 Da and 324 Da originated from the glucoside unit. Based on the high intensity signals, compound 15 was identified as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl siaresinolic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester and compound 17 was identified as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl oleanolic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester. These two compounds have been reported in Ilex godajam and Ilex hylonoma [17]. In addition, compound 16 was characterized as isomers of compound 17 due to the same [M-H]− ions and fragmentation patterns. The compounds 5, 6, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 17 were newly found in Ilex Kudingcha. Since NMR data and the corresponding standards of the compounds 13 and 16 were not available, identifications of these compounds could not be completed by the LC-MS/MS in this study.


Antidiabetic Effect of an Active Components Group from Ilex kudingcha and Its Chemical Composition.

Song C, Xie C, Zhou Z, Yu S, Fang N - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2012)

Structures of the flavonoids and triterpenoid saponins identified or characterized in ACG. *ara: arabinoside; rha: rhamnoside; glc: glucoside; glcu: glucuronide.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3303728&req=5

fig8: Structures of the flavonoids and triterpenoid saponins identified or characterized in ACG. *ara: arabinoside; rha: rhamnoside; glc: glucoside; glcu: glucuronide.
Mentions: Compound 11 had the [M-H]−ion at m/z 745.4247 (calculated for C41H62O12, 746.4241) was identified as 3-O-α-L rhamnopyranosyl-(1-2)-α-L-arabinopy-ranosyl-α-kudinlactone based on product ions from CID of [M-146]− and [M-H-146-132]− (Table 4 and Figure 8), as reported in Ilex kudingcha previously [15]. HR-ESI-MS of compound 12 exhibited an [M-H]− ion at m/z 1073.5695 corresponding to C53H85O22 (calculated for C53H86O22, 1074.5611), and four ions at [M-H-162]−, [M-H-162-162]−, [M-H-162-162-146]−, and [M-H-162-162-146-132]− indicated four sugars in the structure. It showed similar CID fragmentation with macranthoside B [16]. The MS/MS data from 13 were almost identical to those of 12 (Table 4), and it was likely that 13 is a stereoisomer of 12 due to different configuration of the triterpene ester. Compound 15 exhibited an [M-H]− ion at m/z 971.4936 corresponding to C48H75O20 (calculated for C48H76O20 [M-H]−, 972.4929). Its MS/MS spectrum gave two ions of [M-H-162]− and [M-H-162-162]−, strongly suggesting the presence of two sugar moieties. HR-ESI-MS of compound 16 displayed the [M-H]− ion at m/z 955.4991 corresponding to C48H75O19 (calculated for C48H76O19 [M-H]−, 956.4981). Like compound 15, the loss of 162 Da and 324 Da originated from the glucoside unit. Based on the high intensity signals, compound 15 was identified as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl siaresinolic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester and compound 17 was identified as 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl oleanolic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester. These two compounds have been reported in Ilex godajam and Ilex hylonoma [17]. In addition, compound 16 was characterized as isomers of compound 17 due to the same [M-H]− ions and fragmentation patterns. The compounds 5, 6, 12, 13, 15, 16, and 17 were newly found in Ilex Kudingcha. Since NMR data and the corresponding standards of the compounds 13 and 16 were not available, identifications of these compounds could not be completed by the LC-MS/MS in this study.

Bottom Line: Using LC-DAD/HR-ESI-TOF-MS, six major components were identified in ACG.It is reasonable to assume that antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha against hyperglycemia resulted from these six major components.Also, synergistic effects among their compounds may exist in the antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory of Chinese Medicine Resource and Compound Prescription, Hubei University of Chinese Medicine, Ministry of Education, 1 Huang-jia-hu, Wuhan 430065, China.

ABSTRACT
The leaves of Ilex kudingcha are used as an ethnomedicine in the treatment of symptoms related with diabetes mellitus and obesity throughout the centuries in China. The present study investigated the antidiabetic activities of an active components group (ACG) obtained from Ilex kudingcha in alloxan-induced type 2 diabetic mice. ACG significantly reduced the elevated levels of serum glycaemic and lipids in type 2 diabetic mice. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and glucokinase were upregulated significantly, while fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic enzyme was downregulated in diabetic mice after treatment of ACG. These findings clearly provided evidences regarding the antidiabetic potentials of ACG from Ilex kudingcha. Using LC-DAD/HR-ESI-TOF-MS, six major components were identified in ACG. They are three dicaffeoylquinic acids that have been reported previously, and three new triterpenoid saponins, which were the first time to be identified in Ilex kudingcha. It is reasonable to assume that antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha against hyperglycemia resulted from these six major components. Also, synergistic effects among their compounds may exist in the antidiabetic activity of Ilex kudingcha.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus