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How can microarrays unlock asthma?

Faiz A, Burgess JK - J Allergy (Cairo) (2012)

Bottom Line: Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens.By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more effective treatments may be identified.In the new age of high-throughput technologies, gene-expression microarrays provide a quick and effective method of identifying novel genes and pathways, which would be impossible to discover using an individual gene screening approach.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, 431 Glebe Point Road, Glebe, NSW 2037, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens. By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more effective treatments may be identified. In the new age of high-throughput technologies, gene-expression microarrays provide a quick and effective method of identifying novel genes and pathways, which would be impossible to discover using an individual gene screening approach. In this review we follow the history of expression microarray technologies and describe their contributions to advancing our current knowledge and understanding of asthma pathology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Transcripts from a single gene can undergo different splicing events. When mRNA is initially transcribed (known as pre-mRNA), it retains introns (thick black line), large segments of noncoding mRNA which separate exons, the coding regions. Through a process known as splicing, the introns are then removed and exons are ligated together to produce mature mRNA. Splicing also has the ability to remove exons or even retain introns resulting in the formation of different mature mRNA transcripts for the same gene (referred to as alternative splicing). Different mature mRNA transcripts encode for different proteins which may have alternative functions.
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fig3: Transcripts from a single gene can undergo different splicing events. When mRNA is initially transcribed (known as pre-mRNA), it retains introns (thick black line), large segments of noncoding mRNA which separate exons, the coding regions. Through a process known as splicing, the introns are then removed and exons are ligated together to produce mature mRNA. Splicing also has the ability to remove exons or even retain introns resulting in the formation of different mature mRNA transcripts for the same gene (referred to as alternative splicing). Different mature mRNA transcripts encode for different proteins which may have alternative functions.

Mentions: Although many versions of the 3′ IVT array have been released, the methods for preparing samples for these microarrays remain mostly unchanged. To prepare the samples for the 3′ IVT array, mRNA is first extracted from the targeted sample and converted to cDNA via reverse transcription using oligo(dT) primers attached to a T7 promoter (Figure 3). Oligo(dT) primers are short strings of dTs which selectively bind to the poly-A tails (of mRNA). Although this process was quite successful in binding to the majority of mRNAs, transcripts without poly-A tails (non-polyadenylated) were lost during this step. Current technology for the purpose of priming for reverse transcription uses random hexamers (strings of six random dNTPs) which capture sequences at any location along a transcript. This will be discussed later (see Section 8).


How can microarrays unlock asthma?

Faiz A, Burgess JK - J Allergy (Cairo) (2012)

Transcripts from a single gene can undergo different splicing events. When mRNA is initially transcribed (known as pre-mRNA), it retains introns (thick black line), large segments of noncoding mRNA which separate exons, the coding regions. Through a process known as splicing, the introns are then removed and exons are ligated together to produce mature mRNA. Splicing also has the ability to remove exons or even retain introns resulting in the formation of different mature mRNA transcripts for the same gene (referred to as alternative splicing). Different mature mRNA transcripts encode for different proteins which may have alternative functions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3303677&req=5

fig3: Transcripts from a single gene can undergo different splicing events. When mRNA is initially transcribed (known as pre-mRNA), it retains introns (thick black line), large segments of noncoding mRNA which separate exons, the coding regions. Through a process known as splicing, the introns are then removed and exons are ligated together to produce mature mRNA. Splicing also has the ability to remove exons or even retain introns resulting in the formation of different mature mRNA transcripts for the same gene (referred to as alternative splicing). Different mature mRNA transcripts encode for different proteins which may have alternative functions.
Mentions: Although many versions of the 3′ IVT array have been released, the methods for preparing samples for these microarrays remain mostly unchanged. To prepare the samples for the 3′ IVT array, mRNA is first extracted from the targeted sample and converted to cDNA via reverse transcription using oligo(dT) primers attached to a T7 promoter (Figure 3). Oligo(dT) primers are short strings of dTs which selectively bind to the poly-A tails (of mRNA). Although this process was quite successful in binding to the majority of mRNAs, transcripts without poly-A tails (non-polyadenylated) were lost during this step. Current technology for the purpose of priming for reverse transcription uses random hexamers (strings of six random dNTPs) which capture sequences at any location along a transcript. This will be discussed later (see Section 8).

Bottom Line: Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens.By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more effective treatments may be identified.In the new age of high-throughput technologies, gene-expression microarrays provide a quick and effective method of identifying novel genes and pathways, which would be impossible to discover using an individual gene screening approach.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, 431 Glebe Point Road, Glebe, NSW 2037, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Asthma is a complex disease regulated by the interplay of a large number of underlying mechanisms which contribute to the overall pathology. Despite various breakthroughs identifying genes related to asthma, our understanding of the importance of the genetic background remains limited. Although current therapies for asthma are relatively effective, subpopulations of asthmatics do not respond to these regimens. By unlocking the role of these underlying mechanisms, a source of novel and more effective treatments may be identified. In the new age of high-throughput technologies, gene-expression microarrays provide a quick and effective method of identifying novel genes and pathways, which would be impossible to discover using an individual gene screening approach. In this review we follow the history of expression microarray technologies and describe their contributions to advancing our current knowledge and understanding of asthma pathology.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus