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Roles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of SLE.

Su DL, Lu ZM, Shen MN, Li X, Sun LY - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2012)

Bottom Line: SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease in which various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including TGF-β, IL-10, BAFF, IL-6, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23, play crucial pathogenic roles.Virtually, all these cytokines can be generated by both innate and adaptive immune cells and exert different effects depending on specific local microenvironment.They can also interact with each other, forming a complex network to maintain delicate immune homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease in which various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including TGF-β, IL-10, BAFF, IL-6, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23, play crucial pathogenic roles. Virtually, all these cytokines can be generated by both innate and adaptive immune cells and exert different effects depending on specific local microenvironment. They can also interact with each other, forming a complex network to maintain delicate immune homeostasis. In this paper, we elaborate on the abnormal secretion and functions of these cytokines in SLE, analyze their potential pathogenic roles, and probe into the possibility of them being utilized as targets for therapy.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cytokine network that links innate and adaptive immunity. This figure illustrates the functions of some key cytokines secreted by several most important types of immune cells. APC refers primarily to monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In SLE, TGF-β and IL-10 mainly exhibit anti-inflammatory effects, while IL-6, BAFF, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23 function as proinflammatory cytokines. These cytokines have cross-talks by affecting one another, thereafter constituting a complex network.
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fig1: Cytokine network that links innate and adaptive immunity. This figure illustrates the functions of some key cytokines secreted by several most important types of immune cells. APC refers primarily to monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In SLE, TGF-β and IL-10 mainly exhibit anti-inflammatory effects, while IL-6, BAFF, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23 function as proinflammatory cytokines. These cytokines have cross-talks by affecting one another, thereafter constituting a complex network.

Mentions: The cytokines discussed above are mostly generated by innate immune cells upon stimulation by invading pathogens, which then induce the activation and proliferation of adaptive immune cells to perform a joint protective immune function. A local inflammatory milieu will elicit the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines in a negative feedback, as well as the generation of regulatory T and B cells, to prevent overactivation of immune response and subsequent autoimmune disease. However, there exist various abnormalities of multiple cytokines in number and function in SLE patients, which play crucial roles in disease pathogenesis (Table 1). These cytokines are downstream products of activated immune cells and can also exert different effects on the proliferation and function of immune cells. They may act directly or indirectly on each other, thereby constituting a complex network (Figure 1).


Roles of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of SLE.

Su DL, Lu ZM, Shen MN, Li X, Sun LY - J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (2012)

Cytokine network that links innate and adaptive immunity. This figure illustrates the functions of some key cytokines secreted by several most important types of immune cells. APC refers primarily to monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In SLE, TGF-β and IL-10 mainly exhibit anti-inflammatory effects, while IL-6, BAFF, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23 function as proinflammatory cytokines. These cytokines have cross-talks by affecting one another, thereafter constituting a complex network.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3303597&req=5

fig1: Cytokine network that links innate and adaptive immunity. This figure illustrates the functions of some key cytokines secreted by several most important types of immune cells. APC refers primarily to monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In SLE, TGF-β and IL-10 mainly exhibit anti-inflammatory effects, while IL-6, BAFF, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23 function as proinflammatory cytokines. These cytokines have cross-talks by affecting one another, thereafter constituting a complex network.
Mentions: The cytokines discussed above are mostly generated by innate immune cells upon stimulation by invading pathogens, which then induce the activation and proliferation of adaptive immune cells to perform a joint protective immune function. A local inflammatory milieu will elicit the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines in a negative feedback, as well as the generation of regulatory T and B cells, to prevent overactivation of immune response and subsequent autoimmune disease. However, there exist various abnormalities of multiple cytokines in number and function in SLE patients, which play crucial roles in disease pathogenesis (Table 1). These cytokines are downstream products of activated immune cells and can also exert different effects on the proliferation and function of immune cells. They may act directly or indirectly on each other, thereby constituting a complex network (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease in which various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including TGF-β, IL-10, BAFF, IL-6, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23, play crucial pathogenic roles.Virtually, all these cytokines can be generated by both innate and adaptive immune cells and exert different effects depending on specific local microenvironment.They can also interact with each other, forming a complex network to maintain delicate immune homeostasis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Rheumatology, The Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China.

ABSTRACT
SLE is an autoimmune inflammatory disease in which various pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including TGF-β, IL-10, BAFF, IL-6, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17, and IL-23, play crucial pathogenic roles. Virtually, all these cytokines can be generated by both innate and adaptive immune cells and exert different effects depending on specific local microenvironment. They can also interact with each other, forming a complex network to maintain delicate immune homeostasis. In this paper, we elaborate on the abnormal secretion and functions of these cytokines in SLE, analyze their potential pathogenic roles, and probe into the possibility of them being utilized as targets for therapy.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus