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Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence.

Scally A, Dutheil JY, Hillier LW, Jordan GE, Goodhead I, Herrero J, Hobolth A, Lappalainen T, Mailund T, Marques-Bonet T, McCarthy S, Montgomery SH, Schwalie PC, Tang YA, Ward MC, Xue Y, Yngvadottir B, Alkan C, Andersen LN, Ayub Q, Ball EV, Beal K, Bradley BJ, Chen Y, Clee CM, Fitzgerald S, Graves TA, Gu Y, Heath P, Heger A, Karakoc E, Kolb-Kokocinski A, Laird GK, Lunter G, Meader S, Mort M, Mullikin JC, Munch K, O'Connor TD, Phillips AD, Prado-Martinez J, Rogers AS, Sajjadian S, Schmidt D, Shaw K, Simpson JT, Stenson PD, Turner DJ, Vigilant L, Vilella AJ, Whitener W, Zhu B, Cooper DN, de Jong P, Dermitzakis ET, Eichler EE, Flicek P, Goldman N, Mundy NI, Ning Z, Odom DT, Ponting CP, Quail MA, Ryder OA, Searle SM, Warren WC, Wilson RK, Schierup MH, Rogers J, Tyler-Smith C, Durbin R - Nature (2012)

Bottom Line: A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing.We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species.The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.

ABSTRACT
Gorillas are humans' closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human-chimpanzee and human-chimpanzee-gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago. In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution.

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Differences in expression and regulationa, Mean gene expression distance between human and chimpanzee as a function of the proportion of ILS sites per gene. Each point represents a sliding window of 900 genes (over genes ordered by ILS fraction); s.d. error limits are shown in grey. b, (top) Classification of CTCF sites in the gorilla (EB(JC)) and human (GM12878) LCLs on the basis of species-uniqueness; numbers of alignable CTCF binding sites are shown for each category; (bottom) sequence changes of CTCF motifs embedded in human-specific, shared and gorilla-specific CTCF binding sites located within shared CpG islands, species-specific CpG islands or outside CpG islands. Numbers of CTCF binding sites are shown for each CpG island category. Gorilla and human motif sequences are compared and represented as indels, disruptions (>4 bp gaps), and substitutions.
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Figure 3: Differences in expression and regulationa, Mean gene expression distance between human and chimpanzee as a function of the proportion of ILS sites per gene. Each point represents a sliding window of 900 genes (over genes ordered by ILS fraction); s.d. error limits are shown in grey. b, (top) Classification of CTCF sites in the gorilla (EB(JC)) and human (GM12878) LCLs on the basis of species-uniqueness; numbers of alignable CTCF binding sites are shown for each category; (bottom) sequence changes of CTCF motifs embedded in human-specific, shared and gorilla-specific CTCF binding sites located within shared CpG islands, species-specific CpG islands or outside CpG islands. Numbers of CTCF binding sites are shown for each CpG island category. Gorilla and human motif sequences are compared and represented as indels, disruptions (>4 bp gaps), and substitutions.

Mentions: We carried out an analysis of hominine transcriptome variation using total RNA extracted and sequenced from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) of one gorilla, two chimpanzees and two bonobos (Supplementary Information), and published RNA sequence data for eight human individuals34. After quantifying reads mapping to exons and genes in each species, we calculated the degree of species-specific expression and splicing in 9,746 1:1:1 expressed orthologous genes. On average, human and chimpanzee expression were more similar to each other than either was to gorilla (Fig. SF10.2). However this effect is reduced in genes with a higher proportion of ILS sites, which tend to show greater expression distance between humans and chimpanzees (Fig. 3a). More generally, patterns seen in the relative expression distances between the three species showed a significant overlap with those derived from genomic lineage sorting (p = 0.026; Table ST10.4), demonstrating that ILS can be reflected in functional differences between primate species.


Insights into hominid evolution from the gorilla genome sequence.

Scally A, Dutheil JY, Hillier LW, Jordan GE, Goodhead I, Herrero J, Hobolth A, Lappalainen T, Mailund T, Marques-Bonet T, McCarthy S, Montgomery SH, Schwalie PC, Tang YA, Ward MC, Xue Y, Yngvadottir B, Alkan C, Andersen LN, Ayub Q, Ball EV, Beal K, Bradley BJ, Chen Y, Clee CM, Fitzgerald S, Graves TA, Gu Y, Heath P, Heger A, Karakoc E, Kolb-Kokocinski A, Laird GK, Lunter G, Meader S, Mort M, Mullikin JC, Munch K, O'Connor TD, Phillips AD, Prado-Martinez J, Rogers AS, Sajjadian S, Schmidt D, Shaw K, Simpson JT, Stenson PD, Turner DJ, Vigilant L, Vilella AJ, Whitener W, Zhu B, Cooper DN, de Jong P, Dermitzakis ET, Eichler EE, Flicek P, Goldman N, Mundy NI, Ning Z, Odom DT, Ponting CP, Quail MA, Ryder OA, Searle SM, Warren WC, Wilson RK, Schierup MH, Rogers J, Tyler-Smith C, Durbin R - Nature (2012)

Differences in expression and regulationa, Mean gene expression distance between human and chimpanzee as a function of the proportion of ILS sites per gene. Each point represents a sliding window of 900 genes (over genes ordered by ILS fraction); s.d. error limits are shown in grey. b, (top) Classification of CTCF sites in the gorilla (EB(JC)) and human (GM12878) LCLs on the basis of species-uniqueness; numbers of alignable CTCF binding sites are shown for each category; (bottom) sequence changes of CTCF motifs embedded in human-specific, shared and gorilla-specific CTCF binding sites located within shared CpG islands, species-specific CpG islands or outside CpG islands. Numbers of CTCF binding sites are shown for each CpG island category. Gorilla and human motif sequences are compared and represented as indels, disruptions (>4 bp gaps), and substitutions.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 3: Differences in expression and regulationa, Mean gene expression distance between human and chimpanzee as a function of the proportion of ILS sites per gene. Each point represents a sliding window of 900 genes (over genes ordered by ILS fraction); s.d. error limits are shown in grey. b, (top) Classification of CTCF sites in the gorilla (EB(JC)) and human (GM12878) LCLs on the basis of species-uniqueness; numbers of alignable CTCF binding sites are shown for each category; (bottom) sequence changes of CTCF motifs embedded in human-specific, shared and gorilla-specific CTCF binding sites located within shared CpG islands, species-specific CpG islands or outside CpG islands. Numbers of CTCF binding sites are shown for each CpG island category. Gorilla and human motif sequences are compared and represented as indels, disruptions (>4 bp gaps), and substitutions.
Mentions: We carried out an analysis of hominine transcriptome variation using total RNA extracted and sequenced from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) of one gorilla, two chimpanzees and two bonobos (Supplementary Information), and published RNA sequence data for eight human individuals34. After quantifying reads mapping to exons and genes in each species, we calculated the degree of species-specific expression and splicing in 9,746 1:1:1 expressed orthologous genes. On average, human and chimpanzee expression were more similar to each other than either was to gorilla (Fig. SF10.2). However this effect is reduced in genes with a higher proportion of ILS sites, which tend to show greater expression distance between humans and chimpanzees (Fig. 3a). More generally, patterns seen in the relative expression distances between the three species showed a significant overlap with those derived from genomic lineage sorting (p = 0.026; Table ST10.4), demonstrating that ILS can be reflected in functional differences between primate species.

Bottom Line: A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing.We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species.The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.

ABSTRACT
Gorillas are humans' closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence consistent with placing the human-chimpanzee and human-chimpanzee-gorilla speciation events at approximately 6 and 10 million years ago. In 30% of the genome, gorilla is closer to human or chimpanzee than the latter are to each other; this is rarer around coding genes, indicating pervasive selection throughout great ape evolution, and has functional consequences in gene expression. A comparison of protein coding genes reveals approximately 500 genes showing accelerated evolution on each of the gorilla, human and chimpanzee lineages, and evidence for parallel acceleration, particularly of genes involved in hearing. We also compare the western and eastern gorilla species, estimating an average sequence divergence time 1.75 million years ago, but with evidence for more recent genetic exchange and a population bottleneck in the eastern species. The use of the genome sequence in these and future analyses will promote a deeper understanding of great ape biology and evolution.

Show MeSH