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Evaluation of immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs during early stage of infection under farm conditions.

Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Binjawadagi B, Linhares D, Murtaugh MP, Renukaradhya GJ - Virol. J. (2012)

Bottom Line: Irrespective of regular vaccination, control of PRRSV remains a challenge to swine farmers.Replicating PRRSV in both infected and contact pigs was found to be responsible for rapid modulation in NK cell-meditated cytotoxicity and alteration in the production of important immune cytokines.PRRSV-induced immunological changes observed simultaneously at both cellular and cytokine levels early post-infection appear to be responsible for the delay in generation of adaptive immunity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Wooster, 44691, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes chronic, economically devastating disease in pigs of all ages. Frequent mutations in the viral genome result in viruses with immune escape mutants. Irrespective of regular vaccination, control of PRRSV remains a challenge to swine farmers. In PRRSV-infected pigs, innate cytokine IFN-α is inhibited and the adaptive arm of the immunity is delayed. To elucidate both cellular and innate cytokine responses at very early stages of PRRSV infection, seven weeks old pigs maintained on a commercial pig farm were infected and analyzed.

Results: One pig in a pen containing 25 pigs was PRRSV infected and responses from this pig and one penmate were assessed two days later. All the infected and a few of the contact neighbor pigs were viremic. At day 2 post-infection, approximately 50% of viremic pigs had greater than 50% reduction in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and nearly a 1-fold increase in IFN-α production was detected in blood of a few pigs. Enhanced secretion of IL-4 (in ~90%), IL-12 (in ~40%), and IL-10 (in ~20%) (but not IFN-γ) in PRRSV infected pigs was observed. In addition, reduced frequency of myeloid cells, CD4(-)CD8(+) T cells, and CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells and upregulated frequency of lymphocytes bearing natural T regulatory cell phenotype were detected in viremic pigs. Interestingly, all viremic contact pigs also had comparable immune cell modulations.

Conclusion: Replicating PRRSV in both infected and contact pigs was found to be responsible for rapid modulation in NK cell-meditated cytotoxicity and alteration in the production of important immune cytokines. PRRSV-induced immunological changes observed simultaneously at both cellular and cytokine levels early post-infection appear to be responsible for the delay in generation of adaptive immunity. As the study was performed in pigs maintained under commercial environmental conditions, this study has practical implications in design of protective vaccines.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Active replication of PRRSV in infected pigs. Plasma collected from pigs on day 0 (n = 50) (pre-infection) and day 2 post-infection of infected (n = 25) and contact (n = 25) pigs was analyzed to determine the PRRSV titer by quantitative RT-PCR. (A) Results of PRRSV qRT-PCR in each ml of plasma (RNA copies in log10 values) and (B) viral load in plasma in log10 TCID50/ml are shown.
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Figure 1: Active replication of PRRSV in infected pigs. Plasma collected from pigs on day 0 (n = 50) (pre-infection) and day 2 post-infection of infected (n = 25) and contact (n = 25) pigs was analyzed to determine the PRRSV titer by quantitative RT-PCR. (A) Results of PRRSV qRT-PCR in each ml of plasma (RNA copies in log10 values) and (B) viral load in plasma in log10 TCID50/ml are shown.

Mentions: In each pen (n = 25 pigs) only 2 pigs were studied, the pig infected and 1 of the other penmate (contact control). All 25 PRRSV- infected pigs in 25 pens were viremic with detectable RNA and viral titer by quantitative RT-PCR at 2 days post-infection (Figure 1A and 1B). Interestingly, seven of 25 contact pigs also were viremic (Figure 1), indicating the rapid transmission of PRRSV to penmates. We observed pigs twice daily for clinical PRRS symptoms such as fever, inappetence, respiratory distress, cough, etc., but did not see any such symptoms in infected or contact pigs until day 2 post-infection.


Evaluation of immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs during early stage of infection under farm conditions.

Dwivedi V, Manickam C, Binjawadagi B, Linhares D, Murtaugh MP, Renukaradhya GJ - Virol. J. (2012)

Active replication of PRRSV in infected pigs. Plasma collected from pigs on day 0 (n = 50) (pre-infection) and day 2 post-infection of infected (n = 25) and contact (n = 25) pigs was analyzed to determine the PRRSV titer by quantitative RT-PCR. (A) Results of PRRSV qRT-PCR in each ml of plasma (RNA copies in log10 values) and (B) viral load in plasma in log10 TCID50/ml are shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3298799&req=5

Figure 1: Active replication of PRRSV in infected pigs. Plasma collected from pigs on day 0 (n = 50) (pre-infection) and day 2 post-infection of infected (n = 25) and contact (n = 25) pigs was analyzed to determine the PRRSV titer by quantitative RT-PCR. (A) Results of PRRSV qRT-PCR in each ml of plasma (RNA copies in log10 values) and (B) viral load in plasma in log10 TCID50/ml are shown.
Mentions: In each pen (n = 25 pigs) only 2 pigs were studied, the pig infected and 1 of the other penmate (contact control). All 25 PRRSV- infected pigs in 25 pens were viremic with detectable RNA and viral titer by quantitative RT-PCR at 2 days post-infection (Figure 1A and 1B). Interestingly, seven of 25 contact pigs also were viremic (Figure 1), indicating the rapid transmission of PRRSV to penmates. We observed pigs twice daily for clinical PRRS symptoms such as fever, inappetence, respiratory distress, cough, etc., but did not see any such symptoms in infected or contact pigs until day 2 post-infection.

Bottom Line: Irrespective of regular vaccination, control of PRRSV remains a challenge to swine farmers.Replicating PRRSV in both infected and contact pigs was found to be responsible for rapid modulation in NK cell-meditated cytotoxicity and alteration in the production of important immune cytokines.PRRSV-induced immunological changes observed simultaneously at both cellular and cytokine levels early post-infection appear to be responsible for the delay in generation of adaptive immunity.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, The Ohio State University, Wooster, 44691, USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes chronic, economically devastating disease in pigs of all ages. Frequent mutations in the viral genome result in viruses with immune escape mutants. Irrespective of regular vaccination, control of PRRSV remains a challenge to swine farmers. In PRRSV-infected pigs, innate cytokine IFN-α is inhibited and the adaptive arm of the immunity is delayed. To elucidate both cellular and innate cytokine responses at very early stages of PRRSV infection, seven weeks old pigs maintained on a commercial pig farm were infected and analyzed.

Results: One pig in a pen containing 25 pigs was PRRSV infected and responses from this pig and one penmate were assessed two days later. All the infected and a few of the contact neighbor pigs were viremic. At day 2 post-infection, approximately 50% of viremic pigs had greater than 50% reduction in NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and nearly a 1-fold increase in IFN-α production was detected in blood of a few pigs. Enhanced secretion of IL-4 (in ~90%), IL-12 (in ~40%), and IL-10 (in ~20%) (but not IFN-γ) in PRRSV infected pigs was observed. In addition, reduced frequency of myeloid cells, CD4(-)CD8(+) T cells, and CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells and upregulated frequency of lymphocytes bearing natural T regulatory cell phenotype were detected in viremic pigs. Interestingly, all viremic contact pigs also had comparable immune cell modulations.

Conclusion: Replicating PRRSV in both infected and contact pigs was found to be responsible for rapid modulation in NK cell-meditated cytotoxicity and alteration in the production of important immune cytokines. PRRSV-induced immunological changes observed simultaneously at both cellular and cytokine levels early post-infection appear to be responsible for the delay in generation of adaptive immunity. As the study was performed in pigs maintained under commercial environmental conditions, this study has practical implications in design of protective vaccines.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus