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Evolutionary history of the genus Tarentola (Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) from the Mediterranean Basin, estimated using multilocus sequence data.

Rato C, Carranza S, Harris DJ - BMC Evol. Biol. (2012)

Bottom Line: The cladogenesis between these two groups occurred around 8.69 Mya, coincident with the late Miocene.Contrary to what was initially proposed, T. neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to both T. fascicularis and T. deserti.At least in the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa, the lineages obtained have some geographic coherency, whilst the evolutionary history of the forms from Northeast Africa remains unclear, with a paraphyletic T. fascicularis with respect to T. deserti.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Portugal. catarina.rato@mail.icav.up.pt

ABSTRACT

Background: The pronounced morphological conservatism within Tarentola geckos contrasted with a high genetic variation in North Africa, has led to the hypothesis that this group could represent a cryptic species complex, a challenging system to study especially when trying to define distinct evolutionary entities and address biogeographic hypotheses. In the present work we have re-examined the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships between and within all Mediterranean species of Tarentola, placing the genealogies obtained into a temporal framework. In order to do this, we have investigated the sequence variation of two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), and four nuclear markers (ACM4, PDC, MC1R, and RAG2) for 384 individuals of all known Mediterranean Tarentola species, so that their evolutionary history could be assessed.

Results: Of all three generated genealogies (combined mtDNA, combined nDNA, and mtDNA+nDNA) we prefer the phylogenetic relationships obtained when all genetic markers are combined. A total of 133 individuals, and 2,901 bp of sequence length, were used in this analysis. The phylogeny obtained for Tarentola presents deep branches, with T. annularis, T. ephippiata and T. chazaliae occupying a basal position and splitting from the remaining species around 15.38 Mya. Tarentola boehmei is sister to all other Mediterranean species, from which it split around 11.38 Mya. There are also two other major groups: 1) the T. mauritanica complex present in North Africa and Europe; and 2) the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, T. neglecta and T. mindiae, occurring only in North Africa. The cladogenesis between these two groups occurred around 8.69 Mya, coincident with the late Miocene. Contrary to what was initially proposed, T. neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to both T. fascicularis and T. deserti.

Conclusions: At least in the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa, the lineages obtained have some geographic coherency, whilst the evolutionary history of the forms from Northeast Africa remains unclear, with a paraphyletic T. fascicularis with respect to T. deserti. The separation between the T. mauritanica complex and the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, T. neglecta and T. mindiae is coincident with the uplift of the Atlas Mountain chain, and the establishment of two distinct bioclimatic regions on each side of the barrier.

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RAxML phylogenetic tree for all markers used in this study (mtDNA+nDNA). Maximum likelihood bootstrap scores are represented over key nodes, and the star symbol corresponds to Bayesian posterior probabilities higher than 95%. Below the nodes, and in red are represented the estimates (mean and 95% credibility interval) obtained of the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA). The black arrow corresponds to incongruences between both phylogenetic methods, with Clade IV appearing as a politomy and sister taxa to Clades I and V, according to the Bayesian Inference.
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Figure 4: RAxML phylogenetic tree for all markers used in this study (mtDNA+nDNA). Maximum likelihood bootstrap scores are represented over key nodes, and the star symbol corresponds to Bayesian posterior probabilities higher than 95%. Below the nodes, and in red are represented the estimates (mean and 95% credibility interval) obtained of the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA). The black arrow corresponds to incongruences between both phylogenetic methods, with Clade IV appearing as a politomy and sister taxa to Clades I and V, according to the Bayesian Inference.

Mentions: In order to perform this analysis (Figure 4 and Additional file 1, Figure S1), we used a total of 133 individuals, and 2,901 bp (817 bp of two mtDNA genes, and 2,084 bp of four nDNA genes). All lineages identified with the mtDNA dataset were recovered, although some of the relationships between them were altered. According to this genealogy, T. annularis and T. ephippiata appear as sister taxa, in turn related to T. chazaliae. These three species split from the remaining Mediterranean Tarentola approximately 15.38 (11.53-19.93) Mya. The T. boehmei lineage appears as monophyletic and originated around 11.38 (8.53-14.28) Mya. Within the T. mauritanica complex, Clade I is sister taxon to Clades II, III and IV, and all six lineages from this major group originated between 5.88 (4.37-7.54) and 2.47 Mya (1.41-3.53), corresponding to the late Miocene and late Pliocene, respectively. As obtained from the mtDNA dataset alone, Clade VI is the sister taxa to all remaining lineages from this species complex. Tarentola neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, and the split between these groups occurred around 7.04 (6.29-8.86) Mya. The phylogenetic relationships within the T. fascicularis/deserti complex remain unresolved, and with little geographic correspondence, although all North Algerian clades (Clades XIII, and XV) were clustered together, and represent a distinct lineage. The cladogenesis between the T. mauritanica complex and the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex plus T. mindiae and T. neglecta took place around 8.69 (6.62-10.94) Mya, corresponding to the mid-late Miocene.


Evolutionary history of the genus Tarentola (Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) from the Mediterranean Basin, estimated using multilocus sequence data.

Rato C, Carranza S, Harris DJ - BMC Evol. Biol. (2012)

RAxML phylogenetic tree for all markers used in this study (mtDNA+nDNA). Maximum likelihood bootstrap scores are represented over key nodes, and the star symbol corresponds to Bayesian posterior probabilities higher than 95%. Below the nodes, and in red are represented the estimates (mean and 95% credibility interval) obtained of the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA). The black arrow corresponds to incongruences between both phylogenetic methods, with Clade IV appearing as a politomy and sister taxa to Clades I and V, according to the Bayesian Inference.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3298722&req=5

Figure 4: RAxML phylogenetic tree for all markers used in this study (mtDNA+nDNA). Maximum likelihood bootstrap scores are represented over key nodes, and the star symbol corresponds to Bayesian posterior probabilities higher than 95%. Below the nodes, and in red are represented the estimates (mean and 95% credibility interval) obtained of the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA). The black arrow corresponds to incongruences between both phylogenetic methods, with Clade IV appearing as a politomy and sister taxa to Clades I and V, according to the Bayesian Inference.
Mentions: In order to perform this analysis (Figure 4 and Additional file 1, Figure S1), we used a total of 133 individuals, and 2,901 bp (817 bp of two mtDNA genes, and 2,084 bp of four nDNA genes). All lineages identified with the mtDNA dataset were recovered, although some of the relationships between them were altered. According to this genealogy, T. annularis and T. ephippiata appear as sister taxa, in turn related to T. chazaliae. These three species split from the remaining Mediterranean Tarentola approximately 15.38 (11.53-19.93) Mya. The T. boehmei lineage appears as monophyletic and originated around 11.38 (8.53-14.28) Mya. Within the T. mauritanica complex, Clade I is sister taxon to Clades II, III and IV, and all six lineages from this major group originated between 5.88 (4.37-7.54) and 2.47 Mya (1.41-3.53), corresponding to the late Miocene and late Pliocene, respectively. As obtained from the mtDNA dataset alone, Clade VI is the sister taxa to all remaining lineages from this species complex. Tarentola neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, and the split between these groups occurred around 7.04 (6.29-8.86) Mya. The phylogenetic relationships within the T. fascicularis/deserti complex remain unresolved, and with little geographic correspondence, although all North Algerian clades (Clades XIII, and XV) were clustered together, and represent a distinct lineage. The cladogenesis between the T. mauritanica complex and the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex plus T. mindiae and T. neglecta took place around 8.69 (6.62-10.94) Mya, corresponding to the mid-late Miocene.

Bottom Line: The cladogenesis between these two groups occurred around 8.69 Mya, coincident with the late Miocene.Contrary to what was initially proposed, T. neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to both T. fascicularis and T. deserti.At least in the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa, the lineages obtained have some geographic coherency, whilst the evolutionary history of the forms from Northeast Africa remains unclear, with a paraphyletic T. fascicularis with respect to T. deserti.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Portugal. catarina.rato@mail.icav.up.pt

ABSTRACT

Background: The pronounced morphological conservatism within Tarentola geckos contrasted with a high genetic variation in North Africa, has led to the hypothesis that this group could represent a cryptic species complex, a challenging system to study especially when trying to define distinct evolutionary entities and address biogeographic hypotheses. In the present work we have re-examined the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships between and within all Mediterranean species of Tarentola, placing the genealogies obtained into a temporal framework. In order to do this, we have investigated the sequence variation of two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), and four nuclear markers (ACM4, PDC, MC1R, and RAG2) for 384 individuals of all known Mediterranean Tarentola species, so that their evolutionary history could be assessed.

Results: Of all three generated genealogies (combined mtDNA, combined nDNA, and mtDNA+nDNA) we prefer the phylogenetic relationships obtained when all genetic markers are combined. A total of 133 individuals, and 2,901 bp of sequence length, were used in this analysis. The phylogeny obtained for Tarentola presents deep branches, with T. annularis, T. ephippiata and T. chazaliae occupying a basal position and splitting from the remaining species around 15.38 Mya. Tarentola boehmei is sister to all other Mediterranean species, from which it split around 11.38 Mya. There are also two other major groups: 1) the T. mauritanica complex present in North Africa and Europe; and 2) the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, T. neglecta and T. mindiae, occurring only in North Africa. The cladogenesis between these two groups occurred around 8.69 Mya, coincident with the late Miocene. Contrary to what was initially proposed, T. neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to both T. fascicularis and T. deserti.

Conclusions: At least in the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa, the lineages obtained have some geographic coherency, whilst the evolutionary history of the forms from Northeast Africa remains unclear, with a paraphyletic T. fascicularis with respect to T. deserti. The separation between the T. mauritanica complex and the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, T. neglecta and T. mindiae is coincident with the uplift of the Atlas Mountain chain, and the establishment of two distinct bioclimatic regions on each side of the barrier.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus