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Evolutionary history of the genus Tarentola (Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) from the Mediterranean Basin, estimated using multilocus sequence data.

Rato C, Carranza S, Harris DJ - BMC Evol. Biol. (2012)

Bottom Line: The cladogenesis between these two groups occurred around 8.69 Mya, coincident with the late Miocene.Contrary to what was initially proposed, T. neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to both T. fascicularis and T. deserti.At least in the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa, the lineages obtained have some geographic coherency, whilst the evolutionary history of the forms from Northeast Africa remains unclear, with a paraphyletic T. fascicularis with respect to T. deserti.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Portugal. catarina.rato@mail.icav.up.pt

ABSTRACT

Background: The pronounced morphological conservatism within Tarentola geckos contrasted with a high genetic variation in North Africa, has led to the hypothesis that this group could represent a cryptic species complex, a challenging system to study especially when trying to define distinct evolutionary entities and address biogeographic hypotheses. In the present work we have re-examined the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships between and within all Mediterranean species of Tarentola, placing the genealogies obtained into a temporal framework. In order to do this, we have investigated the sequence variation of two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), and four nuclear markers (ACM4, PDC, MC1R, and RAG2) for 384 individuals of all known Mediterranean Tarentola species, so that their evolutionary history could be assessed.

Results: Of all three generated genealogies (combined mtDNA, combined nDNA, and mtDNA+nDNA) we prefer the phylogenetic relationships obtained when all genetic markers are combined. A total of 133 individuals, and 2,901 bp of sequence length, were used in this analysis. The phylogeny obtained for Tarentola presents deep branches, with T. annularis, T. ephippiata and T. chazaliae occupying a basal position and splitting from the remaining species around 15.38 Mya. Tarentola boehmei is sister to all other Mediterranean species, from which it split around 11.38 Mya. There are also two other major groups: 1) the T. mauritanica complex present in North Africa and Europe; and 2) the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, T. neglecta and T. mindiae, occurring only in North Africa. The cladogenesis between these two groups occurred around 8.69 Mya, coincident with the late Miocene. Contrary to what was initially proposed, T. neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to both T. fascicularis and T. deserti.

Conclusions: At least in the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa, the lineages obtained have some geographic coherency, whilst the evolutionary history of the forms from Northeast Africa remains unclear, with a paraphyletic T. fascicularis with respect to T. deserti. The separation between the T. mauritanica complex and the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, T. neglecta and T. mindiae is coincident with the uplift of the Atlas Mountain chain, and the establishment of two distinct bioclimatic regions on each side of the barrier.

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RAxML mtDNA phylogenetic tree for the combined 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA. Maximum likelihood bootstrap scores are represented over key nodes, and the star symbol corresponds to Bayesian posterior probabilities higher than 95%. The black arrow corresponds to incongruences between both phylogenetic methods, with DB3091 appearing as sister taxa to Clade XII, with Bayesian Inference, also weakly supported (53%).
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Figure 1: RAxML mtDNA phylogenetic tree for the combined 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA. Maximum likelihood bootstrap scores are represented over key nodes, and the star symbol corresponds to Bayesian posterior probabilities higher than 95%. The black arrow corresponds to incongruences between both phylogenetic methods, with DB3091 appearing as sister taxa to Clade XII, with Bayesian Inference, also weakly supported (53%).

Mentions: With the program ALTER [31] the 384 concatenated mitochondrial sequences were reduced to 125 haplotypes used in the analyses. A total of 818 bp (132 variable sites), corresponding to 301 bp of 12S rRNA and 517 bp of 16S rRNA, were used. According to jModelTest the model of nucleotide substitution that best fits the 12S rRNA dataset is the SYM+I+G, and for the 16S rRNA it is the HKY+G. According to the obtained mitochondrial DNA genealogy results (Figure 1), we were able to recover six major groups within the Mediterranean species of Tarentola, geographically represented in Figure 2; one group corresponding to T. chazaliae; another one clustering T. annularis and T. ephippiata; T. boehmei appears as two separated lineages; another clade comprised of T. neglecta and T. mindiae, sister taxa to both T. deserti and T. fascicularis; and another group clustering T. mauritanica and T. angustimentalis with this latter rendering the former paraphyletic, as previously reported [21,26-30]. Within these major divisions T. chazaliae is basal to all Mediterranean Tarentola and T. annularis and T. ephippiata are sister taxa. Within the T. boehmei group considerable diversity was obtained, with one lineage from southwestern Morocco appearing as an independent evolutionary entity, sister to all remaining Tarentola, although this relationship was not statistically supported. In fact, the southwestern Moroccan clade of T. boehmei is the only one presenting strong geographic coherency, with the remaining lineages of this species clustering specimens from different geographic localities. A further feature of the T. boehmei lineage is the existence within this clade of a specimen assigned as T. deserti (SC62) by Carranza et al. [19]. In fact, SC62 was collected from the same locality as Td55, a specimen morphologically identified as T. deserti, and that falls within the T. deserti clade [29], and far away from the distribution range of T. boehmei. Unfortunately, there is no available information for the nuclear markers of this specimen, in order to determine if this is a case of hybridization, mitochondrial introgression between T. boehmei and T. deserti, a misidentification (implying a substantial range extension) or some other form of error.


Evolutionary history of the genus Tarentola (Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) from the Mediterranean Basin, estimated using multilocus sequence data.

Rato C, Carranza S, Harris DJ - BMC Evol. Biol. (2012)

RAxML mtDNA phylogenetic tree for the combined 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA. Maximum likelihood bootstrap scores are represented over key nodes, and the star symbol corresponds to Bayesian posterior probabilities higher than 95%. The black arrow corresponds to incongruences between both phylogenetic methods, with DB3091 appearing as sister taxa to Clade XII, with Bayesian Inference, also weakly supported (53%).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3298722&req=5

Figure 1: RAxML mtDNA phylogenetic tree for the combined 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA. Maximum likelihood bootstrap scores are represented over key nodes, and the star symbol corresponds to Bayesian posterior probabilities higher than 95%. The black arrow corresponds to incongruences between both phylogenetic methods, with DB3091 appearing as sister taxa to Clade XII, with Bayesian Inference, also weakly supported (53%).
Mentions: With the program ALTER [31] the 384 concatenated mitochondrial sequences were reduced to 125 haplotypes used in the analyses. A total of 818 bp (132 variable sites), corresponding to 301 bp of 12S rRNA and 517 bp of 16S rRNA, were used. According to jModelTest the model of nucleotide substitution that best fits the 12S rRNA dataset is the SYM+I+G, and for the 16S rRNA it is the HKY+G. According to the obtained mitochondrial DNA genealogy results (Figure 1), we were able to recover six major groups within the Mediterranean species of Tarentola, geographically represented in Figure 2; one group corresponding to T. chazaliae; another one clustering T. annularis and T. ephippiata; T. boehmei appears as two separated lineages; another clade comprised of T. neglecta and T. mindiae, sister taxa to both T. deserti and T. fascicularis; and another group clustering T. mauritanica and T. angustimentalis with this latter rendering the former paraphyletic, as previously reported [21,26-30]. Within these major divisions T. chazaliae is basal to all Mediterranean Tarentola and T. annularis and T. ephippiata are sister taxa. Within the T. boehmei group considerable diversity was obtained, with one lineage from southwestern Morocco appearing as an independent evolutionary entity, sister to all remaining Tarentola, although this relationship was not statistically supported. In fact, the southwestern Moroccan clade of T. boehmei is the only one presenting strong geographic coherency, with the remaining lineages of this species clustering specimens from different geographic localities. A further feature of the T. boehmei lineage is the existence within this clade of a specimen assigned as T. deserti (SC62) by Carranza et al. [19]. In fact, SC62 was collected from the same locality as Td55, a specimen morphologically identified as T. deserti, and that falls within the T. deserti clade [29], and far away from the distribution range of T. boehmei. Unfortunately, there is no available information for the nuclear markers of this specimen, in order to determine if this is a case of hybridization, mitochondrial introgression between T. boehmei and T. deserti, a misidentification (implying a substantial range extension) or some other form of error.

Bottom Line: The cladogenesis between these two groups occurred around 8.69 Mya, coincident with the late Miocene.Contrary to what was initially proposed, T. neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to both T. fascicularis and T. deserti.At least in the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa, the lineages obtained have some geographic coherency, whilst the evolutionary history of the forms from Northeast Africa remains unclear, with a paraphyletic T. fascicularis with respect to T. deserti.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Investigação em Biodiversidade e Recursos Genéticos, Campus Agrário de Vairão, Portugal. catarina.rato@mail.icav.up.pt

ABSTRACT

Background: The pronounced morphological conservatism within Tarentola geckos contrasted with a high genetic variation in North Africa, has led to the hypothesis that this group could represent a cryptic species complex, a challenging system to study especially when trying to define distinct evolutionary entities and address biogeographic hypotheses. In the present work we have re-examined the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships between and within all Mediterranean species of Tarentola, placing the genealogies obtained into a temporal framework. In order to do this, we have investigated the sequence variation of two mitochondrial (12S rRNA and 16S rRNA), and four nuclear markers (ACM4, PDC, MC1R, and RAG2) for 384 individuals of all known Mediterranean Tarentola species, so that their evolutionary history could be assessed.

Results: Of all three generated genealogies (combined mtDNA, combined nDNA, and mtDNA+nDNA) we prefer the phylogenetic relationships obtained when all genetic markers are combined. A total of 133 individuals, and 2,901 bp of sequence length, were used in this analysis. The phylogeny obtained for Tarentola presents deep branches, with T. annularis, T. ephippiata and T. chazaliae occupying a basal position and splitting from the remaining species around 15.38 Mya. Tarentola boehmei is sister to all other Mediterranean species, from which it split around 11.38 Mya. There are also two other major groups: 1) the T. mauritanica complex present in North Africa and Europe; and 2) the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, T. neglecta and T. mindiae, occurring only in North Africa. The cladogenesis between these two groups occurred around 8.69 Mya, coincident with the late Miocene. Contrary to what was initially proposed, T. neglecta and T. mindiae are sister taxa to both T. fascicularis and T. deserti.

Conclusions: At least in the Iberian Peninsula and Northwest Africa, the lineages obtained have some geographic coherency, whilst the evolutionary history of the forms from Northeast Africa remains unclear, with a paraphyletic T. fascicularis with respect to T. deserti. The separation between the T. mauritanica complex and the clade formed by the T. fascicularis/deserti complex, T. neglecta and T. mindiae is coincident with the uplift of the Atlas Mountain chain, and the establishment of two distinct bioclimatic regions on each side of the barrier.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus