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Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in dogs in North America.

Beall MJ, Alleman AR, Breitschwerdt EB, Cohn LA, Couto CG, Dryden MW, Guptill LC, Iazbik C, Kania SA, Lathan P, Little SE, Roy A, Sayler KA, Stillman BA, Welles EG, Wolfson W, Yabsley MJ - Parasit Vectors (2012)

Bottom Line: The highest E. canis seroprevalence (2.3%) was found in a region encompassing Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas.Seroreactivity to E. ewingii was also highest in the central region (14.6%) followed by the southeast region (5.9%).The geospatial pattern derived from E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seropositive samples was similar to previous reports based on E. chaffeensis seroreactivity in white-tailed deer and the distribution of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) cases reported by the CDC.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IDEXX Laboratories, Inc,, Westbrook, ME, USA. melissa-beall@idexx.com

ABSTRACT

Background: This study evaluated the exposure of dogs to three different Ehrlichia spp. in the south and central regions of the United States where vector-borne disease prevalence has been previously difficult to ascertain, particularly beyond the metropolitan areas.

Methods: Dog blood samples (n = 8,662) were submitted from 14 veterinary colleges, 6 private veterinary practices and 4 diagnostic laboratories across this region. Samples were tested for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii specific antibodies using peptide microtiter ELISAs.

Results: Overall, E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seroprevalence was 0.8%, 2.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. The highest E. canis seroprevalence (2.3%) was found in a region encompassing Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. E. chaffeensis seroreactivity was 6.6% in the central region (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma) and 4.6% in the southeast region (Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia). Seroreactivity to E. ewingii was also highest in the central region (14.6%) followed by the southeast region (5.9%). The geospatial pattern derived from E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seropositive samples was similar to previous reports based on E. chaffeensis seroreactivity in white-tailed deer and the distribution of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) cases reported by the CDC.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide the first large scale regional documentation of exposure to E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii in pet dogs, highlighting regional differences in seroprevalence and providing the basis for heightened awareness of these emerging vector-borne pathogens by veterinarians and public health agencies.

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Seroprevalence by state of E. canis in dogs.
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Figure 2: Seroprevalence by state of E. canis in dogs.

Mentions: At least one seroreactive sample was identified from each of 25 states, and seroreactivity for at least 2 of the 3 Ehrlichia species was found in samples from 22 states (Figure 1). The region expected to have the greatest R. sanguineus tick pressure (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas) did not have significantly more E. canis seropositive samples (1.2%) compared to all other states combined (0.5%; P = 0.07) (Figure 2). However, the central portion (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas) of this region had significantly more samples seroreactive for E. canis than the eastern portion (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina) of this region (2.0% vs. 0.5% respectively; P= 0.0121). Coincident with A. americanum distribution, seroreactivity to E. chaffeensis (Figures 3, 4) was 6.6% in the central region (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma) and 4.6% in the southeast region (Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia). Seroprevalence of E. chaffeensis in both of these A. americanum indigenous regions was significantly higher than the seroprevalence from all other states combined (0.7%; P < 0.0001). However, seroreactivity to E. ewingii (14.6%) was significantly higher in the central region compared with the seroprevalence in the southeastern region (5.9%) and when compared to all other states combined (1.4%; P < 0.0001) (Figures 3, 4).


Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in dogs in North America.

Beall MJ, Alleman AR, Breitschwerdt EB, Cohn LA, Couto CG, Dryden MW, Guptill LC, Iazbik C, Kania SA, Lathan P, Little SE, Roy A, Sayler KA, Stillman BA, Welles EG, Wolfson W, Yabsley MJ - Parasit Vectors (2012)

Seroprevalence by state of E. canis in dogs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3298699&req=5

Figure 2: Seroprevalence by state of E. canis in dogs.
Mentions: At least one seroreactive sample was identified from each of 25 states, and seroreactivity for at least 2 of the 3 Ehrlichia species was found in samples from 22 states (Figure 1). The region expected to have the greatest R. sanguineus tick pressure (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas) did not have significantly more E. canis seropositive samples (1.2%) compared to all other states combined (0.5%; P = 0.07) (Figure 2). However, the central portion (Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas) of this region had significantly more samples seroreactive for E. canis than the eastern portion (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina) of this region (2.0% vs. 0.5% respectively; P= 0.0121). Coincident with A. americanum distribution, seroreactivity to E. chaffeensis (Figures 3, 4) was 6.6% in the central region (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma) and 4.6% in the southeast region (Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia). Seroprevalence of E. chaffeensis in both of these A. americanum indigenous regions was significantly higher than the seroprevalence from all other states combined (0.7%; P < 0.0001). However, seroreactivity to E. ewingii (14.6%) was significantly higher in the central region compared with the seroprevalence in the southeastern region (5.9%) and when compared to all other states combined (1.4%; P < 0.0001) (Figures 3, 4).

Bottom Line: The highest E. canis seroprevalence (2.3%) was found in a region encompassing Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas.Seroreactivity to E. ewingii was also highest in the central region (14.6%) followed by the southeast region (5.9%).The geospatial pattern derived from E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seropositive samples was similar to previous reports based on E. chaffeensis seroreactivity in white-tailed deer and the distribution of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) cases reported by the CDC.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: IDEXX Laboratories, Inc,, Westbrook, ME, USA. melissa-beall@idexx.com

ABSTRACT

Background: This study evaluated the exposure of dogs to three different Ehrlichia spp. in the south and central regions of the United States where vector-borne disease prevalence has been previously difficult to ascertain, particularly beyond the metropolitan areas.

Methods: Dog blood samples (n = 8,662) were submitted from 14 veterinary colleges, 6 private veterinary practices and 4 diagnostic laboratories across this region. Samples were tested for E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii specific antibodies using peptide microtiter ELISAs.

Results: Overall, E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seroprevalence was 0.8%, 2.8%, and 5.1%, respectively. The highest E. canis seroprevalence (2.3%) was found in a region encompassing Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Tennessee and Texas. E. chaffeensis seroreactivity was 6.6% in the central region (Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma) and 4.6% in the southeast region (Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Virginia). Seroreactivity to E. ewingii was also highest in the central region (14.6%) followed by the southeast region (5.9%). The geospatial pattern derived from E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii seropositive samples was similar to previous reports based on E. chaffeensis seroreactivity in white-tailed deer and the distribution of human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) cases reported by the CDC.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide the first large scale regional documentation of exposure to E. canis, E. chaffeensis and E. ewingii in pet dogs, highlighting regional differences in seroprevalence and providing the basis for heightened awareness of these emerging vector-borne pathogens by veterinarians and public health agencies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus