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Nano-TiO2/PEEK bioactive composite as a bone substitute material: in vitro and in vivo studies.

Wu X, Liu X, Wei J, Ma J, Deng F, Wei S - Int J Nanomedicine (2012)

Bottom Line: Bioactivity evaluation of the nanocomposites revealed that pseudopods of osteoblasts preferred to anchor at areas where n-TiO(2) was present on the surface.In in vivo studies, the percent bone volume value of n-TiO(2)/PEEK was approximately twice as large as that of PEEK (P < 0.05).Our study demonstrates that n-TiO(2) significantly improves the bioactivity of PEEK, especially if it has a rough composite surface.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Center for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Science, College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing.

ABSTRACT

Background: Compared with titanium (Ti) and other metal implant materials, poly(ether-ether ketone) (PEEK) shows outstanding biomechanical properties. A number of studies have also reported attractive bioactivity for nano-TiO(2) (n-TiO(2)).

Methods: In this study, n-TiO(2)/PEEK nanocomposites were prepared, taking advantage of the unique properties of both PEEK polymer and n-TiO(2). The in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of these nanocomposites was assessed against a PEEK polymer control. The effect of surface morphology or roughness on the bioactivity of the n-TiO(2)/PEEK nanocomposites was also studied. n-TiO(2)/PEEK was successfully fabricated and cut into disks for physical and chemical characterization and in vitro studies, and prepared as cylindrical implants for in vivo studies. Their presence on the surface and dispersion in the composites was observed and analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Results: Bioactivity evaluation of the nanocomposites revealed that pseudopods of osteoblasts preferred to anchor at areas where n-TiO(2) was present on the surface. In a cell attachment test, smooth PEEK showed the lowest optical density value (0.56 ± 0.07) while rough n-TiO(2)/PEEK exhibited the highest optical density value (1.21 ± 0.34, P < 0.05). In in vivo studies, the percent bone volume value of n-TiO(2)/PEEK was approximately twice as large as that of PEEK (P < 0.05). Vivid three-dimensional and histologic images of the newly generated bone on the implants further supported our test results.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that n-TiO(2) significantly improves the bioactivity of PEEK, especially if it has a rough composite surface. A n-TiO(2)/PEEK composite with a rough surface could be a novel alternative implant material for orthopedic and dental applications.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cell attachment on PEEK and n-TiO2/PEEK before and after blasted treatment. (A1) Smooth PEEK, (A2) rough PEEK, (B1) smooth n-TiO2/PEEK, and (B2) rough n-TiO2/PEEK.Note: *P < 0.05.Abbreviations: OD, optical density; PEEK, poly(ether-ether-ketone).
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f4-ijn-7-1215: Cell attachment on PEEK and n-TiO2/PEEK before and after blasted treatment. (A1) Smooth PEEK, (A2) rough PEEK, (B1) smooth n-TiO2/PEEK, and (B2) rough n-TiO2/PEEK.Note: *P < 0.05.Abbreviations: OD, optical density; PEEK, poly(ether-ether-ketone).

Mentions: Cell attachment was measured by WST-1 testing after 4 hours of culture of the various samples, and the results are shown in Figure 4. It is interesting to note that smooth PEEK showed the lowest optical density value (0.56 ± 0.07) among the groups (P < 0.05), while the rough n-TiO2/PEEK group had a significantly higher optical density value (1.21 ± 0.34, P < 0.05), indicating better cell attachment compared with the other groups. The study suggests the presence of n-TiO2 in the composites, especially those with a rough surface, with marked attachment of cells to the implant surfaces.


Nano-TiO2/PEEK bioactive composite as a bone substitute material: in vitro and in vivo studies.

Wu X, Liu X, Wei J, Ma J, Deng F, Wei S - Int J Nanomedicine (2012)

Cell attachment on PEEK and n-TiO2/PEEK before and after blasted treatment. (A1) Smooth PEEK, (A2) rough PEEK, (B1) smooth n-TiO2/PEEK, and (B2) rough n-TiO2/PEEK.Note: *P < 0.05.Abbreviations: OD, optical density; PEEK, poly(ether-ether-ketone).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3298387&req=5

f4-ijn-7-1215: Cell attachment on PEEK and n-TiO2/PEEK before and after blasted treatment. (A1) Smooth PEEK, (A2) rough PEEK, (B1) smooth n-TiO2/PEEK, and (B2) rough n-TiO2/PEEK.Note: *P < 0.05.Abbreviations: OD, optical density; PEEK, poly(ether-ether-ketone).
Mentions: Cell attachment was measured by WST-1 testing after 4 hours of culture of the various samples, and the results are shown in Figure 4. It is interesting to note that smooth PEEK showed the lowest optical density value (0.56 ± 0.07) among the groups (P < 0.05), while the rough n-TiO2/PEEK group had a significantly higher optical density value (1.21 ± 0.34, P < 0.05), indicating better cell attachment compared with the other groups. The study suggests the presence of n-TiO2 in the composites, especially those with a rough surface, with marked attachment of cells to the implant surfaces.

Bottom Line: Bioactivity evaluation of the nanocomposites revealed that pseudopods of osteoblasts preferred to anchor at areas where n-TiO(2) was present on the surface.In in vivo studies, the percent bone volume value of n-TiO(2)/PEEK was approximately twice as large as that of PEEK (P < 0.05).Our study demonstrates that n-TiO(2) significantly improves the bioactivity of PEEK, especially if it has a rough composite surface.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Center for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Science, College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing.

ABSTRACT

Background: Compared with titanium (Ti) and other metal implant materials, poly(ether-ether ketone) (PEEK) shows outstanding biomechanical properties. A number of studies have also reported attractive bioactivity for nano-TiO(2) (n-TiO(2)).

Methods: In this study, n-TiO(2)/PEEK nanocomposites were prepared, taking advantage of the unique properties of both PEEK polymer and n-TiO(2). The in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of these nanocomposites was assessed against a PEEK polymer control. The effect of surface morphology or roughness on the bioactivity of the n-TiO(2)/PEEK nanocomposites was also studied. n-TiO(2)/PEEK was successfully fabricated and cut into disks for physical and chemical characterization and in vitro studies, and prepared as cylindrical implants for in vivo studies. Their presence on the surface and dispersion in the composites was observed and analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Results: Bioactivity evaluation of the nanocomposites revealed that pseudopods of osteoblasts preferred to anchor at areas where n-TiO(2) was present on the surface. In a cell attachment test, smooth PEEK showed the lowest optical density value (0.56 ± 0.07) while rough n-TiO(2)/PEEK exhibited the highest optical density value (1.21 ± 0.34, P < 0.05). In in vivo studies, the percent bone volume value of n-TiO(2)/PEEK was approximately twice as large as that of PEEK (P < 0.05). Vivid three-dimensional and histologic images of the newly generated bone on the implants further supported our test results.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that n-TiO(2) significantly improves the bioactivity of PEEK, especially if it has a rough composite surface. A n-TiO(2)/PEEK composite with a rough surface could be a novel alternative implant material for orthopedic and dental applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus