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Nano-TiO2/PEEK bioactive composite as a bone substitute material: in vitro and in vivo studies.

Wu X, Liu X, Wei J, Ma J, Deng F, Wei S - Int J Nanomedicine (2012)

Bottom Line: Bioactivity evaluation of the nanocomposites revealed that pseudopods of osteoblasts preferred to anchor at areas where n-TiO(2) was present on the surface.In in vivo studies, the percent bone volume value of n-TiO(2)/PEEK was approximately twice as large as that of PEEK (P < 0.05).Our study demonstrates that n-TiO(2) significantly improves the bioactivity of PEEK, especially if it has a rough composite surface.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Center for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Science, College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing.

ABSTRACT

Background: Compared with titanium (Ti) and other metal implant materials, poly(ether-ether ketone) (PEEK) shows outstanding biomechanical properties. A number of studies have also reported attractive bioactivity for nano-TiO(2) (n-TiO(2)).

Methods: In this study, n-TiO(2)/PEEK nanocomposites were prepared, taking advantage of the unique properties of both PEEK polymer and n-TiO(2). The in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of these nanocomposites was assessed against a PEEK polymer control. The effect of surface morphology or roughness on the bioactivity of the n-TiO(2)/PEEK nanocomposites was also studied. n-TiO(2)/PEEK was successfully fabricated and cut into disks for physical and chemical characterization and in vitro studies, and prepared as cylindrical implants for in vivo studies. Their presence on the surface and dispersion in the composites was observed and analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Results: Bioactivity evaluation of the nanocomposites revealed that pseudopods of osteoblasts preferred to anchor at areas where n-TiO(2) was present on the surface. In a cell attachment test, smooth PEEK showed the lowest optical density value (0.56 ± 0.07) while rough n-TiO(2)/PEEK exhibited the highest optical density value (1.21 ± 0.34, P < 0.05). In in vivo studies, the percent bone volume value of n-TiO(2)/PEEK was approximately twice as large as that of PEEK (P < 0.05). Vivid three-dimensional and histologic images of the newly generated bone on the implants further supported our test results.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that n-TiO(2) significantly improves the bioactivity of PEEK, especially if it has a rough composite surface. A n-TiO(2)/PEEK composite with a rough surface could be a novel alternative implant material for orthopedic and dental applications.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

In histological analysis, new bone formation around the PEEK and n-TiO2/PEEK were detected by bone labelling (calcein, calcein blue, and tetracycline). Group A was PEEK and group B was n-TiO2/PEEK. Original magnification of (A1) and (B1) was 5× and (A2) and (B2) was 20×.Notes: A1 and B1 bar, 200 μm; A2 and B2 bar, 100 μm.Abbreviations: S, sample; NgB, newly grown bone deposition and remodeling zone; PeB, pre-existing bone tissue zone; PEEK, poly(ether-ether-ketone).
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f10-ijn-7-1215: In histological analysis, new bone formation around the PEEK and n-TiO2/PEEK were detected by bone labelling (calcein, calcein blue, and tetracycline). Group A was PEEK and group B was n-TiO2/PEEK. Original magnification of (A1) and (B1) was 5× and (A2) and (B2) was 20×.Notes: A1 and B1 bar, 200 μm; A2 and B2 bar, 100 μm.Abbreviations: S, sample; NgB, newly grown bone deposition and remodeling zone; PeB, pre-existing bone tissue zone; PEEK, poly(ether-ether-ketone).

Mentions: Fluorochrome bone marker labels (calcein, calcein blue, and tetracycline) were clearly observed for bone tissue bonding to the cylindrical implants. More bone deposition and remodeling was seen around the n-TiO2/PEEK implants (Figure 10), suggesting a greater degree of bone regeneration than around the pure PEEK implants.


Nano-TiO2/PEEK bioactive composite as a bone substitute material: in vitro and in vivo studies.

Wu X, Liu X, Wei J, Ma J, Deng F, Wei S - Int J Nanomedicine (2012)

In histological analysis, new bone formation around the PEEK and n-TiO2/PEEK were detected by bone labelling (calcein, calcein blue, and tetracycline). Group A was PEEK and group B was n-TiO2/PEEK. Original magnification of (A1) and (B1) was 5× and (A2) and (B2) was 20×.Notes: A1 and B1 bar, 200 μm; A2 and B2 bar, 100 μm.Abbreviations: S, sample; NgB, newly grown bone deposition and remodeling zone; PeB, pre-existing bone tissue zone; PEEK, poly(ether-ether-ketone).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3298387&req=5

f10-ijn-7-1215: In histological analysis, new bone formation around the PEEK and n-TiO2/PEEK were detected by bone labelling (calcein, calcein blue, and tetracycline). Group A was PEEK and group B was n-TiO2/PEEK. Original magnification of (A1) and (B1) was 5× and (A2) and (B2) was 20×.Notes: A1 and B1 bar, 200 μm; A2 and B2 bar, 100 μm.Abbreviations: S, sample; NgB, newly grown bone deposition and remodeling zone; PeB, pre-existing bone tissue zone; PEEK, poly(ether-ether-ketone).
Mentions: Fluorochrome bone marker labels (calcein, calcein blue, and tetracycline) were clearly observed for bone tissue bonding to the cylindrical implants. More bone deposition and remodeling was seen around the n-TiO2/PEEK implants (Figure 10), suggesting a greater degree of bone regeneration than around the pure PEEK implants.

Bottom Line: Bioactivity evaluation of the nanocomposites revealed that pseudopods of osteoblasts preferred to anchor at areas where n-TiO(2) was present on the surface.In in vivo studies, the percent bone volume value of n-TiO(2)/PEEK was approximately twice as large as that of PEEK (P < 0.05).Our study demonstrates that n-TiO(2) significantly improves the bioactivity of PEEK, especially if it has a rough composite surface.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Research Center for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Science, College of Stomatology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing.

ABSTRACT

Background: Compared with titanium (Ti) and other metal implant materials, poly(ether-ether ketone) (PEEK) shows outstanding biomechanical properties. A number of studies have also reported attractive bioactivity for nano-TiO(2) (n-TiO(2)).

Methods: In this study, n-TiO(2)/PEEK nanocomposites were prepared, taking advantage of the unique properties of both PEEK polymer and n-TiO(2). The in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of these nanocomposites was assessed against a PEEK polymer control. The effect of surface morphology or roughness on the bioactivity of the n-TiO(2)/PEEK nanocomposites was also studied. n-TiO(2)/PEEK was successfully fabricated and cut into disks for physical and chemical characterization and in vitro studies, and prepared as cylindrical implants for in vivo studies. Their presence on the surface and dispersion in the composites was observed and analyzed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Results: Bioactivity evaluation of the nanocomposites revealed that pseudopods of osteoblasts preferred to anchor at areas where n-TiO(2) was present on the surface. In a cell attachment test, smooth PEEK showed the lowest optical density value (0.56 ± 0.07) while rough n-TiO(2)/PEEK exhibited the highest optical density value (1.21 ± 0.34, P < 0.05). In in vivo studies, the percent bone volume value of n-TiO(2)/PEEK was approximately twice as large as that of PEEK (P < 0.05). Vivid three-dimensional and histologic images of the newly generated bone on the implants further supported our test results.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that n-TiO(2) significantly improves the bioactivity of PEEK, especially if it has a rough composite surface. A n-TiO(2)/PEEK composite with a rough surface could be a novel alternative implant material for orthopedic and dental applications.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus