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Use of human senses as sensors.

Sugawara Y, Sugimoto C, Minabe S, Iura Y, Okazaki M, Nakagawa N, Seto M, Maruyama S, Hirano M, Kitayama I - Sensors (Basel) (2009)

Bottom Line: In the latter study, we employed a sensory test for evaluating changes in perception of a given aroma.The perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives as a function of the task assigned to participants.The obtained findings illustrate subtle nuances regarding how essential oils manifest their potency and how olfactory discrimination and responses occur in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Science, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Hiroshima 734-8558, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This paper is an overview of our recent findings obtained by the use of human senses as sensors, suggesting that human senses might be indispensable sensors, not only for practical uses but also for gaining a deeper understanding of humans. From this point of view, two kinds of studies, both based on semantic responses of participants, deserve emphasis. One study assessed the efficacy of the photocatalytic elimination of stains or bio-aerosols from an air environment using TiO(2) as well as the photocatalytic deodorizing efficacy of a TiO(2)-type deodorizer; the other study evaluated the changes in perception of a given aroma while inhaling the fragrance of essential oils. In the latter study, we employed a sensory test for evaluating changes in perception of a given aroma. Sensory tests were conducted twice, when participants were undergoing the Kraepelin mental performance test (mental arithmetic) or an auditory task (listening to environmental natural sounds), once before the task (pre-task) and once after the task (post-task). The perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives as a function of the task assigned to participants. The obtained findings illustrate subtle nuances regarding how essential oils manifest their potency and how olfactory discrimination and responses occur in humans.

No MeSH data available.


Summary of the obtained verbal and nonverbal responses to odorants following inhalation of peppermint and spearmint essential oils and linalool in terms of sensory evaluation spectrum and net intensity skin temperature changes, when observed as a function of extraneous condition assigned to the subjects. As for spearmint, the number of subjects in relation to nonverbal test was 17 for mental arithmetic and 18 for the auditory task (listening to environmental sounds). As for linalool, the number of subjects was 20 for mental arithmetic and 22 for the auditory task in relation to verbal test; 20 for mental arithmetic and 20 for the auditory task in relation to nonverbal test.
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f8-sensors-09-03184: Summary of the obtained verbal and nonverbal responses to odorants following inhalation of peppermint and spearmint essential oils and linalool in terms of sensory evaluation spectrum and net intensity skin temperature changes, when observed as a function of extraneous condition assigned to the subjects. As for spearmint, the number of subjects in relation to nonverbal test was 17 for mental arithmetic and 18 for the auditory task (listening to environmental sounds). As for linalool, the number of subjects was 20 for mental arithmetic and 22 for the auditory task in relation to verbal test; 20 for mental arithmetic and 20 for the auditory task in relation to nonverbal test.

Mentions: Individual variation was evident between each trial in an experimental run. In each trial the minute-based mean average temperature (Figure 7c) was then calculated according to the odor presentation periods given at the bottom of the graph, in which assessment of the changes in skin temperature was conducted via the specifications of Sugawara et al. [13]. On the basis of a minute-based intensity profile (bar chart) that was constructed by the integration of temperature curves between each section of the skin temperature measurement protocol (mean temperatures at minute-intervals), each experimental run net intensity change in skin temperature was calculated according to the following formula with respect to presentation of the odorless blank and the target fragrance: (TMMAodor - TMMAo) / TMMAo, where TMMAodor is the observed intensity of the minute-based mean average temperature during odor presentation, and TMMAo is the respective intensity of the odorless blank. This equation produced the results depicted in Figures 7d and e. The values were calculated pre and post task in each trial. In each experimental run, the cases with upward (increasing) skin temperature change pre to post task are plotted on the left, while those with downward tendencies are represented in the right panel (Figure 7d). The summarized mean values of net intensity changes obtained from pre and post task inhalations are depicted as a bar graph (Figure 7e). Like peppermint, similar results were found for spearmint and linalool in terms of net intensity skin temperature changes. In terms of sensory evaluation spectrum and net intensity skin temperature changes, the obtained verbal and nonverbal responses to odorants following inhalation of peppermint and spearmint essential oils and linalool are summarized in Figure 8.


Use of human senses as sensors.

Sugawara Y, Sugimoto C, Minabe S, Iura Y, Okazaki M, Nakagawa N, Seto M, Maruyama S, Hirano M, Kitayama I - Sensors (Basel) (2009)

Summary of the obtained verbal and nonverbal responses to odorants following inhalation of peppermint and spearmint essential oils and linalool in terms of sensory evaluation spectrum and net intensity skin temperature changes, when observed as a function of extraneous condition assigned to the subjects. As for spearmint, the number of subjects in relation to nonverbal test was 17 for mental arithmetic and 18 for the auditory task (listening to environmental sounds). As for linalool, the number of subjects was 20 for mental arithmetic and 22 for the auditory task in relation to verbal test; 20 for mental arithmetic and 20 for the auditory task in relation to nonverbal test.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3297136&req=5

f8-sensors-09-03184: Summary of the obtained verbal and nonverbal responses to odorants following inhalation of peppermint and spearmint essential oils and linalool in terms of sensory evaluation spectrum and net intensity skin temperature changes, when observed as a function of extraneous condition assigned to the subjects. As for spearmint, the number of subjects in relation to nonverbal test was 17 for mental arithmetic and 18 for the auditory task (listening to environmental sounds). As for linalool, the number of subjects was 20 for mental arithmetic and 22 for the auditory task in relation to verbal test; 20 for mental arithmetic and 20 for the auditory task in relation to nonverbal test.
Mentions: Individual variation was evident between each trial in an experimental run. In each trial the minute-based mean average temperature (Figure 7c) was then calculated according to the odor presentation periods given at the bottom of the graph, in which assessment of the changes in skin temperature was conducted via the specifications of Sugawara et al. [13]. On the basis of a minute-based intensity profile (bar chart) that was constructed by the integration of temperature curves between each section of the skin temperature measurement protocol (mean temperatures at minute-intervals), each experimental run net intensity change in skin temperature was calculated according to the following formula with respect to presentation of the odorless blank and the target fragrance: (TMMAodor - TMMAo) / TMMAo, where TMMAodor is the observed intensity of the minute-based mean average temperature during odor presentation, and TMMAo is the respective intensity of the odorless blank. This equation produced the results depicted in Figures 7d and e. The values were calculated pre and post task in each trial. In each experimental run, the cases with upward (increasing) skin temperature change pre to post task are plotted on the left, while those with downward tendencies are represented in the right panel (Figure 7d). The summarized mean values of net intensity changes obtained from pre and post task inhalations are depicted as a bar graph (Figure 7e). Like peppermint, similar results were found for spearmint and linalool in terms of net intensity skin temperature changes. In terms of sensory evaluation spectrum and net intensity skin temperature changes, the obtained verbal and nonverbal responses to odorants following inhalation of peppermint and spearmint essential oils and linalool are summarized in Figure 8.

Bottom Line: In the latter study, we employed a sensory test for evaluating changes in perception of a given aroma.The perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives as a function of the task assigned to participants.The obtained findings illustrate subtle nuances regarding how essential oils manifest their potency and how olfactory discrimination and responses occur in humans.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Science, Prefectural University of Hiroshima, Hiroshima 734-8558, Japan.

ABSTRACT
This paper is an overview of our recent findings obtained by the use of human senses as sensors, suggesting that human senses might be indispensable sensors, not only for practical uses but also for gaining a deeper understanding of humans. From this point of view, two kinds of studies, both based on semantic responses of participants, deserve emphasis. One study assessed the efficacy of the photocatalytic elimination of stains or bio-aerosols from an air environment using TiO(2) as well as the photocatalytic deodorizing efficacy of a TiO(2)-type deodorizer; the other study evaluated the changes in perception of a given aroma while inhaling the fragrance of essential oils. In the latter study, we employed a sensory test for evaluating changes in perception of a given aroma. Sensory tests were conducted twice, when participants were undergoing the Kraepelin mental performance test (mental arithmetic) or an auditory task (listening to environmental natural sounds), once before the task (pre-task) and once after the task (post-task). The perception of fragrance was assessed by 13 contrasting pairs of adjectives as a function of the task assigned to participants. The obtained findings illustrate subtle nuances regarding how essential oils manifest their potency and how olfactory discrimination and responses occur in humans.

No MeSH data available.