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Optical and Electronic NO(x) Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics.

Di Franco C, Elia A, Spagnolo V, Scamarcio G, Lugarà PM, Ieva E, Cioffi N, Torsi L, Bruno G, Losurdo M, Garcia MA, Wolter SD, Brown A, Ricco M - Sensors (Basel) (2009)

Bottom Line: In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, and iii) functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices.Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NO(x) in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization.Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NO(x) sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT3, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari, Italy; E-Mails: angela.elia@fisica.uniba.it (A.E.); spagnolo@fisica.uniba.it (V.S.); scamarcio@fisica.uniba.it (G.S.); lugara@fisica.uniba.it (P.M.L.).

ABSTRACT
Current production and emerging NO(x) sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, and iii) functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NO(x) show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NO(x) in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NO(x) sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling.

No MeSH data available.


SEM micrograph of thermally annealed Au-NPs. Reprinted with permission from [30].
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f4-sensors-09-03337: SEM micrograph of thermally annealed Au-NPs. Reprinted with permission from [30].

Mentions: In our laboratories, we have recently employed electrochemically synthesized Au-NPs as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors for NOx monitoring. The synthesis of nanostructured gold was carried out according to the so-called Sacrificial Anode Electrolysis (SAE), first reported in 1994 in a seminal study by M.T. Reetz [28]. Au-NPs with a core-shell structure were electrosynthesized in presence of quaternary ammonium chloride dissolved in THF/acetonitrile mixed solution (mixing ratio 1:3). In this process, the ammonium salt acts as both the supporting electrolyte and the NP stabilizer, forming the particle shell and thus giving rise to a stable Au-NPs colloidal solution. In similar systems, it has been proven that the thickness of the NP outer shell approximately corresponds to the length of the surfactant alkyl chains [29]. Before the use as a gate material in FET sensors, Au-NPs were subjected to a thermal treatment at 200 °C for 1 hour, to increase the nanomaterial conductivity and enhance its stability. The material, after heating, was still nanostructured, with a spherical morphology, although a moderate increase in the NP mean core diameter could be detected (up to 50 nm, see Figure 4 for a Scanning Electron Microscopy micrograph, SEM, of annealed Au-NPs) with respect to the pristine materials (5 nm) [30].


Optical and Electronic NO(x) Sensors for Applications in Mechatronics.

Di Franco C, Elia A, Spagnolo V, Scamarcio G, Lugarà PM, Ieva E, Cioffi N, Torsi L, Bruno G, Losurdo M, Garcia MA, Wolter SD, Brown A, Ricco M - Sensors (Basel) (2009)

SEM micrograph of thermally annealed Au-NPs. Reprinted with permission from [30].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3297121&req=5

f4-sensors-09-03337: SEM micrograph of thermally annealed Au-NPs. Reprinted with permission from [30].
Mentions: In our laboratories, we have recently employed electrochemically synthesized Au-NPs as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors for NOx monitoring. The synthesis of nanostructured gold was carried out according to the so-called Sacrificial Anode Electrolysis (SAE), first reported in 1994 in a seminal study by M.T. Reetz [28]. Au-NPs with a core-shell structure were electrosynthesized in presence of quaternary ammonium chloride dissolved in THF/acetonitrile mixed solution (mixing ratio 1:3). In this process, the ammonium salt acts as both the supporting electrolyte and the NP stabilizer, forming the particle shell and thus giving rise to a stable Au-NPs colloidal solution. In similar systems, it has been proven that the thickness of the NP outer shell approximately corresponds to the length of the surfactant alkyl chains [29]. Before the use as a gate material in FET sensors, Au-NPs were subjected to a thermal treatment at 200 °C for 1 hour, to increase the nanomaterial conductivity and enhance its stability. The material, after heating, was still nanostructured, with a spherical morphology, although a moderate increase in the NP mean core diameter could be detected (up to 50 nm, see Figure 4 for a Scanning Electron Microscopy micrograph, SEM, of annealed Au-NPs) with respect to the pristine materials (5 nm) [30].

Bottom Line: In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, and iii) functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices.Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NO(x) in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization.Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NO(x) sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory LIT3, via Amendola 173, 70126 Bari, Italy; E-Mails: angela.elia@fisica.uniba.it (A.E.); spagnolo@fisica.uniba.it (V.S.); scamarcio@fisica.uniba.it (G.S.); lugara@fisica.uniba.it (P.M.L.).

ABSTRACT
Current production and emerging NO(x) sensors based on optical and nanomaterials technologies are reviewed. In view of their potential applications in mechatronics, we compared the performance of: i) Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) based photoacoustic (PA) systems; ii) gold nanoparticles as catalytically active materials in field-effect transistor (FET) sensors, and iii) functionalized III-V semiconductor based devices. QCL-based PA sensors for NO(x) show a detection limit in the sub part-per-million range and are characterized by high selectivity and compact set-up. Electrochemically synthesized gold-nanoparticle FET sensors are able to monitor NO(x) in a concentration range from 50 to 200 parts per million and are suitable for miniaturization. Porphyrin-functionalized III-V semiconductor materials can be used for the fabrication of a reliable NO(x) sensor platform characterized by high conductivity, corrosion resistance, and strong surface state coupling.

No MeSH data available.