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Effects of delayed visual feedback on grooved pegboard test performance.

Fujisaki W - Front Psychol (2012)

Bottom Line: This is similar to the critical interval found in audition.When the reliability of spatial information was reduced, the data lay between those of experiments 1 and 2, and that a gradual decrease in performance partially reappeared.These results further support the notion that two mechanisms operate under delayed visual feedback.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Using four experiments, this study investigates what amount of delay brings about maximal impairment under delayed visual feedback and whether a critical interval, such as that in audition, also exists in vision. The first experiment measured the Grooved Pegboard test performance as a function of visual feedback delays from 120 to 2120 ms in 16 steps. Performance sharply decreased until about 490 ms, then more gradually until 2120 ms, suggesting that two mechanisms were operating under delayed visual feedback. Since delayed visual feedback differs from delayed auditory feedback in that the former induces not only temporal but also spatial displacements between motor and sensory feedback, this difference could also exist in the mechanism responsible for spatial displacement. The second experiment was hence conducted to provide simultaneous haptic feedback together with delayed visual feedback to inform correct spatial position. The disruption was significantly ameliorated when information about spatial position was provided from a haptic source. The sharp decrease in performance of up to approximately 300 ms was followed by an almost flat performance. This is similar to the critical interval found in audition. Accordingly, the mechanism that caused the sharp decrease in performance in experiments 1 and 2 was probably mainly responsible for temporal disparity and is common across different modality-motor combinations, while the other mechanism that caused a rather gradual decrease in performance in experiment 1 was mainly responsible for spatial displacement. In experiments 3 and 4, the reliability of spatial information from the haptic source was reduced by wearing a glove or using a tool. When the reliability of spatial information was reduced, the data lay between those of experiments 1 and 2, and that a gradual decrease in performance partially reappeared. These results further support the notion that two mechanisms operate under delayed visual feedback.

No MeSH data available.


Results obtained in the intrinsic delay condition of experiment 1. This graph plots the number of pegs placed within 1 min as a function of session number. A rapid buildup of performance was observed within five sessions.
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Figure 3: Results obtained in the intrinsic delay condition of experiment 1. This graph plots the number of pegs placed within 1 min as a function of session number. A rapid buildup of performance was observed within five sessions.

Mentions: The purpose of the initial practice sessions was to let the participants be accustomed to the task in general, and to adapt to the baseline spatial displacement of visual feedback, since the visual feedback provided from the monitor was vertically placed apart from the workspace. Figure 3 presents the results from the initial five sessions (intrinsic delay = 120 ms condition). The horizontal axis shows the session numbers while the vertical axis shows the number of the pegs successfully placed within 1 min. The results show a rapid buildup of performance within five sessions in an intrinsic delay condition. A one-way within-participants ANOVA showed the significant main effect of session numbers [F(4,84) = 19.02, p < 0.00000000005], while a Bonferroni multiple comparison test showed that there were no significant (p = 0.05) differences between the fourth and fifth sessions, showing that the participants reached a stable performance level by the fourth session. This indicates that the participants had become accustomed to the task and had adapted to the baseline spatial displacement by the fourth session1. Based on these results, the first three sessions were considered as practice sessions, and only the data from the last two sessions were used in the analysis.


Effects of delayed visual feedback on grooved pegboard test performance.

Fujisaki W - Front Psychol (2012)

Results obtained in the intrinsic delay condition of experiment 1. This graph plots the number of pegs placed within 1 min as a function of session number. A rapid buildup of performance was observed within five sessions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3297075&req=5

Figure 3: Results obtained in the intrinsic delay condition of experiment 1. This graph plots the number of pegs placed within 1 min as a function of session number. A rapid buildup of performance was observed within five sessions.
Mentions: The purpose of the initial practice sessions was to let the participants be accustomed to the task in general, and to adapt to the baseline spatial displacement of visual feedback, since the visual feedback provided from the monitor was vertically placed apart from the workspace. Figure 3 presents the results from the initial five sessions (intrinsic delay = 120 ms condition). The horizontal axis shows the session numbers while the vertical axis shows the number of the pegs successfully placed within 1 min. The results show a rapid buildup of performance within five sessions in an intrinsic delay condition. A one-way within-participants ANOVA showed the significant main effect of session numbers [F(4,84) = 19.02, p < 0.00000000005], while a Bonferroni multiple comparison test showed that there were no significant (p = 0.05) differences between the fourth and fifth sessions, showing that the participants reached a stable performance level by the fourth session. This indicates that the participants had become accustomed to the task and had adapted to the baseline spatial displacement by the fourth session1. Based on these results, the first three sessions were considered as practice sessions, and only the data from the last two sessions were used in the analysis.

Bottom Line: This is similar to the critical interval found in audition.When the reliability of spatial information was reduced, the data lay between those of experiments 1 and 2, and that a gradual decrease in performance partially reappeared.These results further support the notion that two mechanisms operate under delayed visual feedback.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Human Technology Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Using four experiments, this study investigates what amount of delay brings about maximal impairment under delayed visual feedback and whether a critical interval, such as that in audition, also exists in vision. The first experiment measured the Grooved Pegboard test performance as a function of visual feedback delays from 120 to 2120 ms in 16 steps. Performance sharply decreased until about 490 ms, then more gradually until 2120 ms, suggesting that two mechanisms were operating under delayed visual feedback. Since delayed visual feedback differs from delayed auditory feedback in that the former induces not only temporal but also spatial displacements between motor and sensory feedback, this difference could also exist in the mechanism responsible for spatial displacement. The second experiment was hence conducted to provide simultaneous haptic feedback together with delayed visual feedback to inform correct spatial position. The disruption was significantly ameliorated when information about spatial position was provided from a haptic source. The sharp decrease in performance of up to approximately 300 ms was followed by an almost flat performance. This is similar to the critical interval found in audition. Accordingly, the mechanism that caused the sharp decrease in performance in experiments 1 and 2 was probably mainly responsible for temporal disparity and is common across different modality-motor combinations, while the other mechanism that caused a rather gradual decrease in performance in experiment 1 was mainly responsible for spatial displacement. In experiments 3 and 4, the reliability of spatial information from the haptic source was reduced by wearing a glove or using a tool. When the reliability of spatial information was reduced, the data lay between those of experiments 1 and 2, and that a gradual decrease in performance partially reappeared. These results further support the notion that two mechanisms operate under delayed visual feedback.

No MeSH data available.