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Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd.

Olajuyigbe OO, Afolayan AJ - BMC Complement Altern Med (2011)

Bottom Line: The phenolics were significantly higher than the flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents in all the extracts investigated.The ferric reducing ability and the radical scavenging activities of the extracts were very high and dose-dependent.This study, therefore, demonstrated that Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata has strong antioxidant property and free radical scavenging capability.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Phytomedicine Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

ABSTRACT

Background: Several plants traditionally used in treatment of a variety of infections in South Africa are reported in ethnobotanical surveys. Many of these plants including Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata lack scientific reports to support their medicinal importance.

Methods: The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the stems of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. The total phenol, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin, Tannic acid and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem bark extracts of this plant were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods.

Results: The quantity of the phenolic compounds, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins detected differ significantly in the various extracts. The phenolics were significantly higher than the flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents in all the extracts investigated. The ferric reducing ability and the radical scavenging activities of the extracts were very high and dose-dependent. The ethanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by the acetone extract while the aqueous extract was the least active. Reacting with ABTS, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were (0.0429 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for aqueous, (0.0317 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for acetone and (0.0306 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for ethanol extracts while they inhibited DPPH radical with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.0646 ± 0.02 mg/ml (aqueous), 0.0482 ± 0.02 mg/ml (acetone) and 0.0422 ± 0.03 mg/ml (ethanol).

Conclusions: A correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic contents of the extracts indicated that phenolic compounds were the dominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the plant. This study, therefore, demonstrated that Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata has strong antioxidant property and free radical scavenging capability.

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Ferric reducing power determinations for the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata. Data are presented as means ± standard deviation of three replicate with significant increases from all samples tested.
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Figure 2: Ferric reducing power determinations for the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata. Data are presented as means ± standard deviation of three replicate with significant increases from all samples tested.

Mentions: The FRAP values of different extracts of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata was determined in an attempt to compare their antioxidant activities The reducing abilities of the different extracts determined by FRAP method were measured spectrophotometrically by their absorbances at 700 nm and summarized in Figure 2. The reducing ability of the extracts showed a dose-dependent trend increasing with increases in the concentrations of the extracts. While highest reducing ability was observed at the highest concentration of each of the extracts, significant differences existed between the reducing ability of each all the extracts. Of the three extracts, acetone extract exhibited the highest reducing capability (0.454 ± 0.001) at the highest concentration. This was followed by (0.421 ± 0.002) ethanol extract while aqueous extract (0.14 ± 0.002) was the least. The reducing abilities recorded was in the following order, Rutin > BHT > Acetone > Ethanol > Aqueous which showed that rutin exhibited the highest reducing ability at 0.1 mg/ml. The significant differences for free radical scavenging activity among the different extracts may be attributed to the varied quantity of each of the phytochemical contents of the plant.


Phenolic content and antioxidant property of the bark extracts of Ziziphus mucronata Willd. subsp. mucronata Willd.

Olajuyigbe OO, Afolayan AJ - BMC Complement Altern Med (2011)

Ferric reducing power determinations for the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata. Data are presented as means ± standard deviation of three replicate with significant increases from all samples tested.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3295714&req=5

Figure 2: Ferric reducing power determinations for the alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata. Data are presented as means ± standard deviation of three replicate with significant increases from all samples tested.
Mentions: The FRAP values of different extracts of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata was determined in an attempt to compare their antioxidant activities The reducing abilities of the different extracts determined by FRAP method were measured spectrophotometrically by their absorbances at 700 nm and summarized in Figure 2. The reducing ability of the extracts showed a dose-dependent trend increasing with increases in the concentrations of the extracts. While highest reducing ability was observed at the highest concentration of each of the extracts, significant differences existed between the reducing ability of each all the extracts. Of the three extracts, acetone extract exhibited the highest reducing capability (0.454 ± 0.001) at the highest concentration. This was followed by (0.421 ± 0.002) ethanol extract while aqueous extract (0.14 ± 0.002) was the least. The reducing abilities recorded was in the following order, Rutin > BHT > Acetone > Ethanol > Aqueous which showed that rutin exhibited the highest reducing ability at 0.1 mg/ml. The significant differences for free radical scavenging activity among the different extracts may be attributed to the varied quantity of each of the phytochemical contents of the plant.

Bottom Line: The phenolics were significantly higher than the flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents in all the extracts investigated.The ferric reducing ability and the radical scavenging activities of the extracts were very high and dose-dependent.This study, therefore, demonstrated that Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata has strong antioxidant property and free radical scavenging capability.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Phytomedicine Research Centre, Department of Botany, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa.

ABSTRACT

Background: Several plants traditionally used in treatment of a variety of infections in South Africa are reported in ethnobotanical surveys. Many of these plants including Ziziphus mucronata subsp. mucronata lack scientific reports to support their medicinal importance.

Methods: The antioxidant activities and phenolic contents of the acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the stems of Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata were evaluated using in vitro standard methods. The total phenol, total flavonoids and proanthocyanidin content were determined spectrophotometrically. Quercetin, Tannic acid and catechin equivalents were used for these parameters. The antioxidant activities of the stem bark extracts of this plant were determined by ABTS, DPPH, and ferrous reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) methods.

Results: The quantity of the phenolic compounds, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins detected differ significantly in the various extracts. The phenolics were significantly higher than the flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents in all the extracts investigated. The ferric reducing ability and the radical scavenging activities of the extracts were very high and dose-dependent. The ethanol extract had the highest antioxidant activity, followed by the acetone extract while the aqueous extract was the least active. Reacting with ABTS, the 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were (0.0429 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for aqueous, (0.0317 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for acetone and (0.0306 ± 0.04 mg/ml) for ethanol extracts while they inhibited DPPH radical with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.0646 ± 0.02 mg/ml (aqueous), 0.0482 ± 0.02 mg/ml (acetone) and 0.0422 ± 0.03 mg/ml (ethanol).

Conclusions: A correlation between the antioxidant activity and the total phenolic contents of the extracts indicated that phenolic compounds were the dominant contributors to the antioxidant activity of the plant. This study, therefore, demonstrated that Z. mucronata subsp. mucronata has strong antioxidant property and free radical scavenging capability.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus