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Measuring substance use in the club setting: a feasibility study using biochemical markers.

Gripenberg-Abdon J, Elgán TH, Wallin E, Shaafati M, Beck O, Andréasson S - Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy (2012)

Bottom Line: The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit.The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004) than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%).Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women) revealed that 76.0% of the men and 80.7% of the women had risky alcohol consumption patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. johanna.abdon@sll.se

ABSTRACT

Background: During the last few decades the use of club drugs (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) has been of increased concern in nightlife settings. Traditionally, surveys have been used to estimate the use of club drugs, however, they mostly rely on self-reports which may not be accurate. Recent advances have allowed for readily accessible drug testing methods such as oral fluid drug testing. Nevertheless, research using oral fluid sampling to measure the frequency of drug use in the club environment is scarce. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of measuring the frequency of alcohol and drug use among Swedish clubbers using breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing.

Method: The setting was a 40 hour electronic music dance event (EMDE) on a cruise ship on the Baltic Sea, departing from Sweden, with 875 passengers. Groups of participants at the EMDE were randomly invited to participate. Data were collected with face-to-face and self-administered questionnaires. Further, oral fluid samples were collected to determine illicit drug use, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels were measured using a breath analyzer.

Results: A total of 422 passengers were asked to participate in the study whereof 21 declined (5.0% refusal rate). Of the 401 study participants (accounting for 45.8% of all attendees), 5 declined oral fluid drug testing. Results show that there was a discrepancy between self-reported and actual drug use as 10.1% of the participants were positive on illicit drug use (amphetamines, ecstasy/MDMA, cannabis, cocaine), while only 3.7% of the participants reported drug use during the last 48 hours. The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit. The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004) than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%). Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women) revealed that 76.0% of the men and 80.7% of the women had risky alcohol consumption patterns.

Conclusion: This study indicates that it is feasible to conduct breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing in a Swedish club setting.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Measured blood alcohol concentrations and AUDIT-C scores. (A) Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) for males (n = 250, grey filled circles), females (n = 142, black filled circles), and both genders (n = 392, solid line) distributed over the percentile range. (B) Total AUDIT-C scores (ranging from 0-12 points) for males (n = 254, grey filled circles), females (n = 145, black filled circles), and both genders (n = 399, solid line) distributed over the percentile range.
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Figure 2: Measured blood alcohol concentrations and AUDIT-C scores. (A) Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) for males (n = 250, grey filled circles), females (n = 142, black filled circles), and both genders (n = 392, solid line) distributed over the percentile range. (B) Total AUDIT-C scores (ranging from 0-12 points) for males (n = 254, grey filled circles), females (n = 145, black filled circles), and both genders (n = 399, solid line) distributed over the percentile range.

Mentions: The mean number of self-reported standard drinks (defined as drinks containing 12 grams of pure alcohol, e.g., one bottle of beer, one glass of wine) consumed by the participating patrons each evening/night was 8.8 (± 5.7) drinks (9.9 ± 6.2 and 6.8 ± 4.0 for men and women, respectively). The average BAC level was 0.10% (± 0.06, range 0.00-0.28); for men the mean value was 0.11% (± 0.06) and for women 0.08% (± 0.06). As seen in Figure 2A, about 62% of the participating patrons (70% for men, 49% for women) had a BAC level of ≥ 0.08%, while approximately 23% (28% for men, 14% for women) had a measured level of ≥ 0.15%, and almost 6% (7% for men, 3% for women) had a level of ≥ 0.20%. About 6% (4% for men, 9% for women) of the participants had not consumed any detectable levels of alcohol. There was no difference concerning measured BAC levels between the first and second night of data collection, nor before or after 2 a.m.. However, there are significant differences between males and females as 54.4%, and 37.3% of men and women, respectively, had a BAC level of 0.10% or more (χ2 = 10.58, d.f. = 1, p = 0.001). Other factors that were significantly associated to participants having a BAC level of 0.10% or more was illicit drug use, an overall risky alcohol consumption pattern, and frequency of clubbing (Table 4). These associations remained after controlling for possible confounding factors using multivariate analyses.


Measuring substance use in the club setting: a feasibility study using biochemical markers.

Gripenberg-Abdon J, Elgán TH, Wallin E, Shaafati M, Beck O, Andréasson S - Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy (2012)

Measured blood alcohol concentrations and AUDIT-C scores. (A) Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) for males (n = 250, grey filled circles), females (n = 142, black filled circles), and both genders (n = 392, solid line) distributed over the percentile range. (B) Total AUDIT-C scores (ranging from 0-12 points) for males (n = 254, grey filled circles), females (n = 145, black filled circles), and both genders (n = 399, solid line) distributed over the percentile range.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3295681&req=5

Figure 2: Measured blood alcohol concentrations and AUDIT-C scores. (A) Blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) for males (n = 250, grey filled circles), females (n = 142, black filled circles), and both genders (n = 392, solid line) distributed over the percentile range. (B) Total AUDIT-C scores (ranging from 0-12 points) for males (n = 254, grey filled circles), females (n = 145, black filled circles), and both genders (n = 399, solid line) distributed over the percentile range.
Mentions: The mean number of self-reported standard drinks (defined as drinks containing 12 grams of pure alcohol, e.g., one bottle of beer, one glass of wine) consumed by the participating patrons each evening/night was 8.8 (± 5.7) drinks (9.9 ± 6.2 and 6.8 ± 4.0 for men and women, respectively). The average BAC level was 0.10% (± 0.06, range 0.00-0.28); for men the mean value was 0.11% (± 0.06) and for women 0.08% (± 0.06). As seen in Figure 2A, about 62% of the participating patrons (70% for men, 49% for women) had a BAC level of ≥ 0.08%, while approximately 23% (28% for men, 14% for women) had a measured level of ≥ 0.15%, and almost 6% (7% for men, 3% for women) had a level of ≥ 0.20%. About 6% (4% for men, 9% for women) of the participants had not consumed any detectable levels of alcohol. There was no difference concerning measured BAC levels between the first and second night of data collection, nor before or after 2 a.m.. However, there are significant differences between males and females as 54.4%, and 37.3% of men and women, respectively, had a BAC level of 0.10% or more (χ2 = 10.58, d.f. = 1, p = 0.001). Other factors that were significantly associated to participants having a BAC level of 0.10% or more was illicit drug use, an overall risky alcohol consumption pattern, and frequency of clubbing (Table 4). These associations remained after controlling for possible confounding factors using multivariate analyses.

Bottom Line: The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit.The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004) than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%).Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women) revealed that 76.0% of the men and 80.7% of the women had risky alcohol consumption patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. johanna.abdon@sll.se

ABSTRACT

Background: During the last few decades the use of club drugs (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) has been of increased concern in nightlife settings. Traditionally, surveys have been used to estimate the use of club drugs, however, they mostly rely on self-reports which may not be accurate. Recent advances have allowed for readily accessible drug testing methods such as oral fluid drug testing. Nevertheless, research using oral fluid sampling to measure the frequency of drug use in the club environment is scarce. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of measuring the frequency of alcohol and drug use among Swedish clubbers using breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing.

Method: The setting was a 40 hour electronic music dance event (EMDE) on a cruise ship on the Baltic Sea, departing from Sweden, with 875 passengers. Groups of participants at the EMDE were randomly invited to participate. Data were collected with face-to-face and self-administered questionnaires. Further, oral fluid samples were collected to determine illicit drug use, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels were measured using a breath analyzer.

Results: A total of 422 passengers were asked to participate in the study whereof 21 declined (5.0% refusal rate). Of the 401 study participants (accounting for 45.8% of all attendees), 5 declined oral fluid drug testing. Results show that there was a discrepancy between self-reported and actual drug use as 10.1% of the participants were positive on illicit drug use (amphetamines, ecstasy/MDMA, cannabis, cocaine), while only 3.7% of the participants reported drug use during the last 48 hours. The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit. The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004) than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%). Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women) revealed that 76.0% of the men and 80.7% of the women had risky alcohol consumption patterns.

Conclusion: This study indicates that it is feasible to conduct breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing in a Swedish club setting.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus