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Measuring substance use in the club setting: a feasibility study using biochemical markers.

Gripenberg-Abdon J, Elgán TH, Wallin E, Shaafati M, Beck O, Andréasson S - Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy (2012)

Bottom Line: The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit.The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004) than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%).Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women) revealed that 76.0% of the men and 80.7% of the women had risky alcohol consumption patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. johanna.abdon@sll.se

ABSTRACT

Background: During the last few decades the use of club drugs (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) has been of increased concern in nightlife settings. Traditionally, surveys have been used to estimate the use of club drugs, however, they mostly rely on self-reports which may not be accurate. Recent advances have allowed for readily accessible drug testing methods such as oral fluid drug testing. Nevertheless, research using oral fluid sampling to measure the frequency of drug use in the club environment is scarce. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of measuring the frequency of alcohol and drug use among Swedish clubbers using breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing.

Method: The setting was a 40 hour electronic music dance event (EMDE) on a cruise ship on the Baltic Sea, departing from Sweden, with 875 passengers. Groups of participants at the EMDE were randomly invited to participate. Data were collected with face-to-face and self-administered questionnaires. Further, oral fluid samples were collected to determine illicit drug use, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels were measured using a breath analyzer.

Results: A total of 422 passengers were asked to participate in the study whereof 21 declined (5.0% refusal rate). Of the 401 study participants (accounting for 45.8% of all attendees), 5 declined oral fluid drug testing. Results show that there was a discrepancy between self-reported and actual drug use as 10.1% of the participants were positive on illicit drug use (amphetamines, ecstasy/MDMA, cannabis, cocaine), while only 3.7% of the participants reported drug use during the last 48 hours. The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit. The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004) than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%). Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women) revealed that 76.0% of the men and 80.7% of the women had risky alcohol consumption patterns.

Conclusion: This study indicates that it is feasible to conduct breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing in a Swedish club setting.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Frequency of illicit drug use. A comparison between the frequency (in per cent) of illicit drug use as determined by oral fluid drug testing (dark grey, n = 396) compared to self-reported drug use within the past 48 hours (light grey, n = 382). Since questions about metamphetamine use were not included in the self-report questionnaire, a subsequent estimate was not available (asterisk).
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Figure 1: Frequency of illicit drug use. A comparison between the frequency (in per cent) of illicit drug use as determined by oral fluid drug testing (dark grey, n = 396) compared to self-reported drug use within the past 48 hours (light grey, n = 382). Since questions about metamphetamine use were not included in the self-report questionnaire, a subsequent estimate was not available (asterisk).

Mentions: Self-reported ever use of drugs among the participants was 49.1% and 9.2% reported that they usually use drugs when clubbing. Further, 3.7% reported having used drugs during the last 48 hours, and 6.0% were planning to use drugs during the EMDE (Table 2 and Figure 1). The most commonly self-reported drug during the last 48 hours was cannabis, followed by amphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy/MDMA. A total of 396 saliva samples were collected and analyzed. Analysis revealed that 10.1% of the participants tested positive for at least one illicit drug (20.0% of the drug users were polydrug users). The most commonly used drugs were amphetamines, followed by ecstasy/MDMA, cannabis, and cocaine. The mean values (ng/mL) and ranges were: amphetamine, 1587 (2-32352); methamphetamine, 725 (15-1880); MDMA, 930 (43-7288); cocaine, 11224; THC, 255 (58-297). Of the 40 illicit drug users the majority were males (75.0%). The frequency of any illicit drug use was 11.8% for men and 6.9% for women (Table 3), however, this difference is non-significant. Both men and women had the same drug preference but none of the women tested positive for cocaine or metamphetamine. Of those who tested positive for drug use over the course of the two evenings, a slightly higher number (57.5%) were found during the second night of data collection. There were a larger (although non-significant) proportion of participants (62.5%) who were positive on drugs later in the night (2 a.m. or later) compared to earlier (before 2 a.m.).


Measuring substance use in the club setting: a feasibility study using biochemical markers.

Gripenberg-Abdon J, Elgán TH, Wallin E, Shaafati M, Beck O, Andréasson S - Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy (2012)

Frequency of illicit drug use. A comparison between the frequency (in per cent) of illicit drug use as determined by oral fluid drug testing (dark grey, n = 396) compared to self-reported drug use within the past 48 hours (light grey, n = 382). Since questions about metamphetamine use were not included in the self-report questionnaire, a subsequent estimate was not available (asterisk).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3295681&req=5

Figure 1: Frequency of illicit drug use. A comparison between the frequency (in per cent) of illicit drug use as determined by oral fluid drug testing (dark grey, n = 396) compared to self-reported drug use within the past 48 hours (light grey, n = 382). Since questions about metamphetamine use were not included in the self-report questionnaire, a subsequent estimate was not available (asterisk).
Mentions: Self-reported ever use of drugs among the participants was 49.1% and 9.2% reported that they usually use drugs when clubbing. Further, 3.7% reported having used drugs during the last 48 hours, and 6.0% were planning to use drugs during the EMDE (Table 2 and Figure 1). The most commonly self-reported drug during the last 48 hours was cannabis, followed by amphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy/MDMA. A total of 396 saliva samples were collected and analyzed. Analysis revealed that 10.1% of the participants tested positive for at least one illicit drug (20.0% of the drug users were polydrug users). The most commonly used drugs were amphetamines, followed by ecstasy/MDMA, cannabis, and cocaine. The mean values (ng/mL) and ranges were: amphetamine, 1587 (2-32352); methamphetamine, 725 (15-1880); MDMA, 930 (43-7288); cocaine, 11224; THC, 255 (58-297). Of the 40 illicit drug users the majority were males (75.0%). The frequency of any illicit drug use was 11.8% for men and 6.9% for women (Table 3), however, this difference is non-significant. Both men and women had the same drug preference but none of the women tested positive for cocaine or metamphetamine. Of those who tested positive for drug use over the course of the two evenings, a slightly higher number (57.5%) were found during the second night of data collection. There were a larger (although non-significant) proportion of participants (62.5%) who were positive on drugs later in the night (2 a.m. or later) compared to earlier (before 2 a.m.).

Bottom Line: The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit.The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004) than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%).Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women) revealed that 76.0% of the men and 80.7% of the women had risky alcohol consumption patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. johanna.abdon@sll.se

ABSTRACT

Background: During the last few decades the use of club drugs (e.g., cocaine, amphetamines) has been of increased concern in nightlife settings. Traditionally, surveys have been used to estimate the use of club drugs, however, they mostly rely on self-reports which may not be accurate. Recent advances have allowed for readily accessible drug testing methods such as oral fluid drug testing. Nevertheless, research using oral fluid sampling to measure the frequency of drug use in the club environment is scarce. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of measuring the frequency of alcohol and drug use among Swedish clubbers using breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing.

Method: The setting was a 40 hour electronic music dance event (EMDE) on a cruise ship on the Baltic Sea, departing from Sweden, with 875 passengers. Groups of participants at the EMDE were randomly invited to participate. Data were collected with face-to-face and self-administered questionnaires. Further, oral fluid samples were collected to determine illicit drug use, and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels were measured using a breath analyzer.

Results: A total of 422 passengers were asked to participate in the study whereof 21 declined (5.0% refusal rate). Of the 401 study participants (accounting for 45.8% of all attendees), 5 declined oral fluid drug testing. Results show that there was a discrepancy between self-reported and actual drug use as 10.1% of the participants were positive on illicit drug use (amphetamines, ecstasy/MDMA, cannabis, cocaine), while only 3.7% of the participants reported drug use during the last 48 hours. The average BAC level was 0.10% and 23.7% had BAC levels ≥ 0.15%, while 5.9% had levels below the detection limit. The mean BAC levels for the illicit drug users were significantly higher (p = 0.004) than for non-drug users (0.13% vs. 0.10%). Self-reported AUDIT-C scores (using a threshold of ≥ 5 for men and ≥ 4 for women) revealed that 76.0% of the men and 80.7% of the women had risky alcohol consumption patterns.

Conclusion: This study indicates that it is feasible to conduct breath alcohol and oral fluid drug testing in a Swedish club setting.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus