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Sulphur limitation and early sulphur deficiency responses in poplar: significance of gene expression, metabolites, and plant hormones.

Honsel A, Kojima M, Haas R, Frank W, Sakakibara H, Herschbach C, Rennenberg H - J. Exp. Bot. (2011)

Bottom Line: S depletion was applied by a gradual decrease of sulphate availability.Based on the decrease in sulphate contents, two phases of S depletion could be distinguished that were denominated as 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency'.S limitation was characterized by improved sulphate uptake (enhanced root-specific sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;2 expression) and reduction capacities (enhanced adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase expression) and by enhanced remobilization of sulphate from the vacuole (enhanced putative vacuolar sulphate transporter PtaSULTR4;2 expression).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The influence of sulphur (S) depletion on the expression of genes related to S metabolism, and on metabolite and plant hormone contents was analysed in young and mature leaves, fine roots, xylem sap, and phloem exudates of poplar (Populus tremula×Populus alba) with special focus on early consequences. S depletion was applied by a gradual decrease of sulphate availability. The observed changes were correlated with sulphate contents. Based on the decrease in sulphate contents, two phases of S depletion could be distinguished that were denominated as 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency'. S limitation was characterized by improved sulphate uptake (enhanced root-specific sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;2 expression) and reduction capacities (enhanced adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase expression) and by enhanced remobilization of sulphate from the vacuole (enhanced putative vacuolar sulphate transporter PtaSULTR4;2 expression). During early S deficiency, whole plant distribution of S was impacted, as indicated by increasing expression of the phloem-localized sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;1 and by decreasing glutathione contents in fine roots, young leaves, mature leaves, and phloem exudates. Furthermore, at 'early S deficiency', expression of microRNA395 (miR395), which targets transcripts of PtaATPS3/4 (ATP sulphurylase) for cleavage, increased. Changes in plant hormone contents were observed at 'early S deficiency' only. Thus, S depletion affects S and plant hormone metabolism of poplar during 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency' in a time series of events. Despite these consequences, the impact of S depletion on growth of poplar plants appears to be less severe than in Brassicaceae such as Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica sp.

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Sulphate (1), phosphate (2), glutathione (3), and sucrose (4) contents in xylem sap (A) and phloem exudates (B) of poplars treated with sulphur depletion and of control plants (day 0). Data presented are the means ±SD of five replicates where each replicate consisted of two pooled plants. Lower case letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 between different time points within one tissue. Contents were related to litres of xylem sap or bark fresh weight (fw) of the bark piece used for phloem exudation, respectively. n.d., not detected
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fig10: Sulphate (1), phosphate (2), glutathione (3), and sucrose (4) contents in xylem sap (A) and phloem exudates (B) of poplars treated with sulphur depletion and of control plants (day 0). Data presented are the means ±SD of five replicates where each replicate consisted of two pooled plants. Lower case letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 between different time points within one tissue. Contents were related to litres of xylem sap or bark fresh weight (fw) of the bark piece used for phloem exudation, respectively. n.d., not detected

Mentions: Sulphate, phosphate, and metabolite contents as well as plant hormone contents were also analysed in xylem sap and phloem exudates. Sulphate contents in xylem sap and in phloem exudates decreased continuously upon S depletion. A first significant decrease was observed after 14 d of S depletion (Fig. 10A1, B1). Phosphate contents in xylem sap were enhanced after 5 d and 9 d of S depletion, but subsequently decreased again to the level of the controls (Fig. 10A2). In phloem exudates, no differences in phosphate contents were found in response to S depletion (Fig. 10B2).


Sulphur limitation and early sulphur deficiency responses in poplar: significance of gene expression, metabolites, and plant hormones.

Honsel A, Kojima M, Haas R, Frank W, Sakakibara H, Herschbach C, Rennenberg H - J. Exp. Bot. (2011)

Sulphate (1), phosphate (2), glutathione (3), and sucrose (4) contents in xylem sap (A) and phloem exudates (B) of poplars treated with sulphur depletion and of control plants (day 0). Data presented are the means ±SD of five replicates where each replicate consisted of two pooled plants. Lower case letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 between different time points within one tissue. Contents were related to litres of xylem sap or bark fresh weight (fw) of the bark piece used for phloem exudation, respectively. n.d., not detected
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3295385&req=5

fig10: Sulphate (1), phosphate (2), glutathione (3), and sucrose (4) contents in xylem sap (A) and phloem exudates (B) of poplars treated with sulphur depletion and of control plants (day 0). Data presented are the means ±SD of five replicates where each replicate consisted of two pooled plants. Lower case letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 between different time points within one tissue. Contents were related to litres of xylem sap or bark fresh weight (fw) of the bark piece used for phloem exudation, respectively. n.d., not detected
Mentions: Sulphate, phosphate, and metabolite contents as well as plant hormone contents were also analysed in xylem sap and phloem exudates. Sulphate contents in xylem sap and in phloem exudates decreased continuously upon S depletion. A first significant decrease was observed after 14 d of S depletion (Fig. 10A1, B1). Phosphate contents in xylem sap were enhanced after 5 d and 9 d of S depletion, but subsequently decreased again to the level of the controls (Fig. 10A2). In phloem exudates, no differences in phosphate contents were found in response to S depletion (Fig. 10B2).

Bottom Line: S depletion was applied by a gradual decrease of sulphate availability.Based on the decrease in sulphate contents, two phases of S depletion could be distinguished that were denominated as 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency'.S limitation was characterized by improved sulphate uptake (enhanced root-specific sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;2 expression) and reduction capacities (enhanced adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase expression) and by enhanced remobilization of sulphate from the vacuole (enhanced putative vacuolar sulphate transporter PtaSULTR4;2 expression).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The influence of sulphur (S) depletion on the expression of genes related to S metabolism, and on metabolite and plant hormone contents was analysed in young and mature leaves, fine roots, xylem sap, and phloem exudates of poplar (Populus tremula×Populus alba) with special focus on early consequences. S depletion was applied by a gradual decrease of sulphate availability. The observed changes were correlated with sulphate contents. Based on the decrease in sulphate contents, two phases of S depletion could be distinguished that were denominated as 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency'. S limitation was characterized by improved sulphate uptake (enhanced root-specific sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;2 expression) and reduction capacities (enhanced adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase expression) and by enhanced remobilization of sulphate from the vacuole (enhanced putative vacuolar sulphate transporter PtaSULTR4;2 expression). During early S deficiency, whole plant distribution of S was impacted, as indicated by increasing expression of the phloem-localized sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;1 and by decreasing glutathione contents in fine roots, young leaves, mature leaves, and phloem exudates. Furthermore, at 'early S deficiency', expression of microRNA395 (miR395), which targets transcripts of PtaATPS3/4 (ATP sulphurylase) for cleavage, increased. Changes in plant hormone contents were observed at 'early S deficiency' only. Thus, S depletion affects S and plant hormone metabolism of poplar during 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency' in a time series of events. Despite these consequences, the impact of S depletion on growth of poplar plants appears to be less severe than in Brassicaceae such as Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica sp.

Show MeSH