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Sulphur limitation and early sulphur deficiency responses in poplar: significance of gene expression, metabolites, and plant hormones.

Honsel A, Kojima M, Haas R, Frank W, Sakakibara H, Herschbach C, Rennenberg H - J. Exp. Bot. (2011)

Bottom Line: S depletion was applied by a gradual decrease of sulphate availability.Based on the decrease in sulphate contents, two phases of S depletion could be distinguished that were denominated as 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency'.S limitation was characterized by improved sulphate uptake (enhanced root-specific sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;2 expression) and reduction capacities (enhanced adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase expression) and by enhanced remobilization of sulphate from the vacuole (enhanced putative vacuolar sulphate transporter PtaSULTR4;2 expression).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The influence of sulphur (S) depletion on the expression of genes related to S metabolism, and on metabolite and plant hormone contents was analysed in young and mature leaves, fine roots, xylem sap, and phloem exudates of poplar (Populus tremula×Populus alba) with special focus on early consequences. S depletion was applied by a gradual decrease of sulphate availability. The observed changes were correlated with sulphate contents. Based on the decrease in sulphate contents, two phases of S depletion could be distinguished that were denominated as 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency'. S limitation was characterized by improved sulphate uptake (enhanced root-specific sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;2 expression) and reduction capacities (enhanced adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase expression) and by enhanced remobilization of sulphate from the vacuole (enhanced putative vacuolar sulphate transporter PtaSULTR4;2 expression). During early S deficiency, whole plant distribution of S was impacted, as indicated by increasing expression of the phloem-localized sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;1 and by decreasing glutathione contents in fine roots, young leaves, mature leaves, and phloem exudates. Furthermore, at 'early S deficiency', expression of microRNA395 (miR395), which targets transcripts of PtaATPS3/4 (ATP sulphurylase) for cleavage, increased. Changes in plant hormone contents were observed at 'early S deficiency' only. Thus, S depletion affects S and plant hormone metabolism of poplar during 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency' in a time series of events. Despite these consequences, the impact of S depletion on growth of poplar plants appears to be less severe than in Brassicaceae such as Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica sp.

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Sulphate (1), phosphate (2), glutathione (3), and sucrose (4) contents in fine roots (A), young leaves (B), and mature leaves (C) of poplars treated with sulphur depletion and of control plants (day 0). Data presented are the means ±SD of five replicates where each replicate consisted of two pooled plants. Lower case letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 between different time points within one tissue. fw, fresh weight
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fig2: Sulphate (1), phosphate (2), glutathione (3), and sucrose (4) contents in fine roots (A), young leaves (B), and mature leaves (C) of poplars treated with sulphur depletion and of control plants (day 0). Data presented are the means ±SD of five replicates where each replicate consisted of two pooled plants. Lower case letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 between different time points within one tissue. fw, fresh weight

Mentions: Sulphate contents used as an indicator of the S status in the plants decreased successively in fine roots, young leaves, and mature leaves in response to S depletion (Fig. 2A1, B1, C1). The strongest decrease was found in young leaves, where sulphate contents declined significantly already after 2 d of S depletion. After 9 d of S depletion, the sulphate content in fine roots, and young and mature leaves was almost halved compared with the control (0 d of S depletion). After 21 d of S depletion, sulphate contents in young and mature leaves were close to zero, whereas considerable amounts of sulphate were still present in fine roots.


Sulphur limitation and early sulphur deficiency responses in poplar: significance of gene expression, metabolites, and plant hormones.

Honsel A, Kojima M, Haas R, Frank W, Sakakibara H, Herschbach C, Rennenberg H - J. Exp. Bot. (2011)

Sulphate (1), phosphate (2), glutathione (3), and sucrose (4) contents in fine roots (A), young leaves (B), and mature leaves (C) of poplars treated with sulphur depletion and of control plants (day 0). Data presented are the means ±SD of five replicates where each replicate consisted of two pooled plants. Lower case letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 between different time points within one tissue. fw, fresh weight
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3295385&req=5

fig2: Sulphate (1), phosphate (2), glutathione (3), and sucrose (4) contents in fine roots (A), young leaves (B), and mature leaves (C) of poplars treated with sulphur depletion and of control plants (day 0). Data presented are the means ±SD of five replicates where each replicate consisted of two pooled plants. Lower case letters indicate significant differences at P < 0.05 between different time points within one tissue. fw, fresh weight
Mentions: Sulphate contents used as an indicator of the S status in the plants decreased successively in fine roots, young leaves, and mature leaves in response to S depletion (Fig. 2A1, B1, C1). The strongest decrease was found in young leaves, where sulphate contents declined significantly already after 2 d of S depletion. After 9 d of S depletion, the sulphate content in fine roots, and young and mature leaves was almost halved compared with the control (0 d of S depletion). After 21 d of S depletion, sulphate contents in young and mature leaves were close to zero, whereas considerable amounts of sulphate were still present in fine roots.

Bottom Line: S depletion was applied by a gradual decrease of sulphate availability.Based on the decrease in sulphate contents, two phases of S depletion could be distinguished that were denominated as 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency'.S limitation was characterized by improved sulphate uptake (enhanced root-specific sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;2 expression) and reduction capacities (enhanced adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase expression) and by enhanced remobilization of sulphate from the vacuole (enhanced putative vacuolar sulphate transporter PtaSULTR4;2 expression).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg, Germany.

ABSTRACT
The influence of sulphur (S) depletion on the expression of genes related to S metabolism, and on metabolite and plant hormone contents was analysed in young and mature leaves, fine roots, xylem sap, and phloem exudates of poplar (Populus tremula×Populus alba) with special focus on early consequences. S depletion was applied by a gradual decrease of sulphate availability. The observed changes were correlated with sulphate contents. Based on the decrease in sulphate contents, two phases of S depletion could be distinguished that were denominated as 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency'. S limitation was characterized by improved sulphate uptake (enhanced root-specific sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;2 expression) and reduction capacities (enhanced adenosine 5'-phosphosulphate (APS) reductase expression) and by enhanced remobilization of sulphate from the vacuole (enhanced putative vacuolar sulphate transporter PtaSULTR4;2 expression). During early S deficiency, whole plant distribution of S was impacted, as indicated by increasing expression of the phloem-localized sulphate transporter PtaSULTR1;1 and by decreasing glutathione contents in fine roots, young leaves, mature leaves, and phloem exudates. Furthermore, at 'early S deficiency', expression of microRNA395 (miR395), which targets transcripts of PtaATPS3/4 (ATP sulphurylase) for cleavage, increased. Changes in plant hormone contents were observed at 'early S deficiency' only. Thus, S depletion affects S and plant hormone metabolism of poplar during 'S limitation' and 'early S deficiency' in a time series of events. Despite these consequences, the impact of S depletion on growth of poplar plants appears to be less severe than in Brassicaceae such as Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica sp.

Show MeSH