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Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead.

Wang L, Zhou C, He Z, Wang ZG, Wang JL, Wang YF - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: While in Pb-contaminated medium, significantly reduced amount of pupae and adults of Dmel wMel were emerged, and Dmel wMel adults had significantly shorter longevity than that of Dmel T flies.Lead cultures did not change dramatically the expression of these genes in Dmel wMel flies.These results suggest that Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead likely by limiting the production of peroxides resulted from lead, thus being unable to activate the immunological pathway in the host to prevent them from lead damage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: The heavy metal lead has been shown to be associated with a genotoxic risk. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism commonly utilized in genetic toxicology testing. The endosymbionts--Wolbachia are now very common in both wild populations and laboratory stocks of Drosophila. Wolbachia may induce resistance to pathogenic viruses, filarial nematodes and Plasmodium in fruit fly and mosquito hosts. However the effect of Wolbachia infection on the resistance of their hosts to heavy metal is unknown.

Methodology/principal findings: Manipulating the lead content in the diet of Drosophila melanogaster, we found that lead consumption had no different effects on developmental time between Wolbachia-infected (Dmel wMel) and -uninfected (Dmel T) flies. While in Pb-contaminated medium, significantly reduced amount of pupae and adults of Dmel wMel were emerged, and Dmel wMel adults had significantly shorter longevity than that of Dmel T flies. Lead infusion in diet resulted in significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in Dmel T flies (P<0.05), but not in Dmel wMel flies. Correspondingly, lead cultures induced a 10.8 fold increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in Dmel T larvae (P<0.05). While in Dmel wMel larvae, it resulted in only a 1.3 fold increase. By quantitative RT-PCR, we showed that lead infused medium caused significantly increased expression level of relish and CecA2 genes in Dmel T flies (P<0.01). Lead cultures did not change dramatically the expression of these genes in Dmel wMel flies.

Conclusions/significance: These results suggest that Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead likely by limiting the production of peroxides resulted from lead, thus being unable to activate the immunological pathway in the host to prevent them from lead damage. This represents a novel Wolbachia-host interaction and provides information that researchers working on Drosophila toxicology should take in consideration the presence of Wolbachia in the stocks they are analyzing.

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The longevities of Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected flies living in the medium infused either 300 µg·ml−1 (a, b) or 0 µg·ml−1 (c, d) of lead.(a, c) Female adults. (b, d) Male adults. Bars = standard error; “*” indicated P<0.05; “**” indicated P<0.01.
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pone-0032643-g003: The longevities of Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected flies living in the medium infused either 300 µg·ml−1 (a, b) or 0 µg·ml−1 (c, d) of lead.(a, c) Female adults. (b, d) Male adults. Bars = standard error; “*” indicated P<0.05; “**” indicated P<0.01.

Mentions: Low concentration of lead in diet did not cause significant difference of longevity between Dmel wMel and Dmel T flies (data not shown). However, high concentration of lead added in food (300 µg·ml−1) resulted in significantly shorter life span in Dmel wMel flies than that in Dmel T flies (Figure 3). The longest life span of Dmel wMel females was 74.33±0.33 days, significantly shorter than that of Dmel T females (91.33±0.67 days) (P<0.01) (Figure 3a). The average life span of Dmel wMel females was 54.63±2.43 days, also notably shorter than that of Dmel T females (65.73±1.47 days) (P<0.05). For males, the maximum longevity of Dmel wMel flies was 67.00±2.65 days (the average was 41.90±2.16), also dramatically shorter than that of Dmel T flies (87.33±3.18 days, with average of 51.73±2.83) (P<0.05) (Figure 3b). The infection of wMel Wolbachia did not influence the longevity of the flies, since in regular medium (containing 0 µg·ml−1 of lead) there were no significant differences of life span between Dmel wMel and Dmel T flies for both females (Figure 3c) and males (Figure 3d).


Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead.

Wang L, Zhou C, He Z, Wang ZG, Wang JL, Wang YF - PLoS ONE (2012)

The longevities of Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected flies living in the medium infused either 300 µg·ml−1 (a, b) or 0 µg·ml−1 (c, d) of lead.(a, c) Female adults. (b, d) Male adults. Bars = standard error; “*” indicated P<0.05; “**” indicated P<0.01.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3293831&req=5

pone-0032643-g003: The longevities of Wolbachia-infected and -uninfected flies living in the medium infused either 300 µg·ml−1 (a, b) or 0 µg·ml−1 (c, d) of lead.(a, c) Female adults. (b, d) Male adults. Bars = standard error; “*” indicated P<0.05; “**” indicated P<0.01.
Mentions: Low concentration of lead in diet did not cause significant difference of longevity between Dmel wMel and Dmel T flies (data not shown). However, high concentration of lead added in food (300 µg·ml−1) resulted in significantly shorter life span in Dmel wMel flies than that in Dmel T flies (Figure 3). The longest life span of Dmel wMel females was 74.33±0.33 days, significantly shorter than that of Dmel T females (91.33±0.67 days) (P<0.01) (Figure 3a). The average life span of Dmel wMel females was 54.63±2.43 days, also notably shorter than that of Dmel T females (65.73±1.47 days) (P<0.05). For males, the maximum longevity of Dmel wMel flies was 67.00±2.65 days (the average was 41.90±2.16), also dramatically shorter than that of Dmel T flies (87.33±3.18 days, with average of 51.73±2.83) (P<0.05) (Figure 3b). The infection of wMel Wolbachia did not influence the longevity of the flies, since in regular medium (containing 0 µg·ml−1 of lead) there were no significant differences of life span between Dmel wMel and Dmel T flies for both females (Figure 3c) and males (Figure 3d).

Bottom Line: While in Pb-contaminated medium, significantly reduced amount of pupae and adults of Dmel wMel were emerged, and Dmel wMel adults had significantly shorter longevity than that of Dmel T flies.Lead cultures did not change dramatically the expression of these genes in Dmel wMel flies.These results suggest that Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead likely by limiting the production of peroxides resulted from lead, thus being unable to activate the immunological pathway in the host to prevent them from lead damage.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, College of Life Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Background: The heavy metal lead has been shown to be associated with a genotoxic risk. Drosophila melanogaster is a model organism commonly utilized in genetic toxicology testing. The endosymbionts--Wolbachia are now very common in both wild populations and laboratory stocks of Drosophila. Wolbachia may induce resistance to pathogenic viruses, filarial nematodes and Plasmodium in fruit fly and mosquito hosts. However the effect of Wolbachia infection on the resistance of their hosts to heavy metal is unknown.

Methodology/principal findings: Manipulating the lead content in the diet of Drosophila melanogaster, we found that lead consumption had no different effects on developmental time between Wolbachia-infected (Dmel wMel) and -uninfected (Dmel T) flies. While in Pb-contaminated medium, significantly reduced amount of pupae and adults of Dmel wMel were emerged, and Dmel wMel adults had significantly shorter longevity than that of Dmel T flies. Lead infusion in diet resulted in significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in Dmel T flies (P<0.05), but not in Dmel wMel flies. Correspondingly, lead cultures induced a 10.8 fold increase in malonaldehyde (MDA) contents in Dmel T larvae (P<0.05). While in Dmel wMel larvae, it resulted in only a 1.3 fold increase. By quantitative RT-PCR, we showed that lead infused medium caused significantly increased expression level of relish and CecA2 genes in Dmel T flies (P<0.01). Lead cultures did not change dramatically the expression of these genes in Dmel wMel flies.

Conclusions/significance: These results suggest that Wolbachia infection decreased the resistance of Drosophila to lead likely by limiting the production of peroxides resulted from lead, thus being unable to activate the immunological pathway in the host to prevent them from lead damage. This represents a novel Wolbachia-host interaction and provides information that researchers working on Drosophila toxicology should take in consideration the presence of Wolbachia in the stocks they are analyzing.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus