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Iontophoresis: a potential emergence of a transdermal drug delivery system.

Dhote V, Bhatnagar P, Mishra PK, Mahajan SC, Mishra DK - Sci Pharm (2011)

Bottom Line: However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis.The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability.Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical Studies, Ujjain, M. P., India.

ABSTRACT
The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The present review deals with the principles and the recent innovations in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery system together with factors affecting the system. This delivery system utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and non-ionic medications. The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability. Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application.

No MeSH data available.


Factors Affecting Iontophoretic Delivery System
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f6-scipharm-2012-80-1: Factors Affecting Iontophoretic Delivery System

Mentions: Human skin is not all the same. There are numerous differences among patient groups as well as between various regions of the body, age and ethnicity. Various factors have been shown to affect the results of iontophoresis. The following factors have to be considered (Fig. 6) [55, 56] because they may improve the delivery from the device and drug release kinetics. One of these factors, regional blood flow (dermal blood supply), determines the systemic and underlying tissue solute absorption. Blood supply, however, does not appear to affect the drug penetration fluxes through the epidermis during iontophoretic delivery. Cross and Roberts showed that solute in the upper layer of the skin following iontophoresis was comparable in anaesthetized rats and sacrificed rats. It can thus be presumed that the blood did not affect the penetration through the epidermis since the latter has no blood supply [17, 57]. Condition of skin also affects the penetrating properties of permeant. Roberts et al., studied the in-vivo passive diffusion of methyl salicylate using skin from different areas of the human body and observed the following rank order: abdomen > forearm > instep > heel > planter, for all subjects.


Iontophoresis: a potential emergence of a transdermal drug delivery system.

Dhote V, Bhatnagar P, Mishra PK, Mahajan SC, Mishra DK - Sci Pharm (2011)

Factors Affecting Iontophoretic Delivery System
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3293348&req=5

f6-scipharm-2012-80-1: Factors Affecting Iontophoretic Delivery System
Mentions: Human skin is not all the same. There are numerous differences among patient groups as well as between various regions of the body, age and ethnicity. Various factors have been shown to affect the results of iontophoresis. The following factors have to be considered (Fig. 6) [55, 56] because they may improve the delivery from the device and drug release kinetics. One of these factors, regional blood flow (dermal blood supply), determines the systemic and underlying tissue solute absorption. Blood supply, however, does not appear to affect the drug penetration fluxes through the epidermis during iontophoretic delivery. Cross and Roberts showed that solute in the upper layer of the skin following iontophoresis was comparable in anaesthetized rats and sacrificed rats. It can thus be presumed that the blood did not affect the penetration through the epidermis since the latter has no blood supply [17, 57]. Condition of skin also affects the penetrating properties of permeant. Roberts et al., studied the in-vivo passive diffusion of methyl salicylate using skin from different areas of the human body and observed the following rank order: abdomen > forearm > instep > heel > planter, for all subjects.

Bottom Line: However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis.The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability.Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical Studies, Ujjain, M. P., India.

ABSTRACT
The delivery of drugs into systemic circulation via skin has generated much attention during the last decade. Transdermal therapeutic systems propound controlled release of active ingredients through the skin and into the systemic circulation in a predictive manner. Drugs administered through these systems escape first-pass metabolism and maintain a steady state scenario similar to a continuous intravenous infusion for up to several days. However, the excellent impervious nature of the skin offers the greatest challenge for successful delivery of drug molecules by utilizing the concepts of iontophoresis. The present review deals with the principles and the recent innovations in the field of iontophoretic drug delivery system together with factors affecting the system. This delivery system utilizes electric current as a driving force for permeation of ionic and non-ionic medications. The rationale behind using this technique is to reversibly alter the barrier properties of skin, which could possibly improve the penetration of drugs such as proteins, peptides and other macromolecules to increase the systemic delivery of high molecular weight compounds with controlled input kinetics and minimum inter-subject variability. Although iontophoresis seems to be an ideal candidate to overcome the limitations associated with the delivery of ionic drugs, further extrapolation of this technique is imperative for translational utility and mass human application.

No MeSH data available.