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Proactive inhibitory control of response as the default state of executive control.

Criaud M, Wardak C, Ben Hamed S, Ballanger B, Boulinguez P - Front Psychol (2012)

Bottom Line: Refraining from reacting does not only involve reactive inhibitory mechanisms.It was recently found that inhibitory control also relies strongly on proactive mechanisms.This conclusion is discussed with regard to current anatomo-functional models of inhibitory control, and to methodological features of studies of attention and sensorimotor control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Université de Lyon Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
Refraining from reacting does not only involve reactive inhibitory mechanisms. It was recently found that inhibitory control also relies strongly on proactive mechanisms. However, since most available studies have focused on reactive stopping, little is known about how proactive inhibition of response is implemented. Two behavioral experiments were conducted to identify the temporal dynamics of this executive function. They manipulated respectively the time during which inhibitory control must be sustained until a stimulus occurs, and the time limit allowed to set up inhibition before a stimulus occurs. The results show that inhibitory control is not set up after but before instruction, and is not transient and sporadic but sustained across time. Consistent with our previous neuroimaging findings, these results suggest that proactive inhibition of response is the default mode of executive control. This implies that top-down control of sensorimotor reactivity would consist of a temporary release (up to several seconds), when appropriate (when the environment becomes predictable), of the default locking state. This conclusion is discussed with regard to current anatomo-functional models of inhibitory control, and to methodological features of studies of attention and sensorimotor control.

No MeSH data available.


Respective predictions of the temporary set and default state hypotheses of proactive inhibitory control. (A) The progress bars convey the state (ON or OFF) of proactive inhibitory control presupposed by each model at each moment in time, starting from the beginning of a trial, for each experimental condition. (B) Predictions regarding the evolution of both false alarms rate and RT according to pre-stimulus delay are presented (blue line: red_cross_no_cue; green line: red_cross_long_CTOA; black line: white_cross_no_cue). See text for details (see “Rationale”).
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Figure 4: Respective predictions of the temporary set and default state hypotheses of proactive inhibitory control. (A) The progress bars convey the state (ON or OFF) of proactive inhibitory control presupposed by each model at each moment in time, starting from the beginning of a trial, for each experimental condition. (B) Predictions regarding the evolution of both false alarms rate and RT according to pre-stimulus delay are presented (blue line: red_cross_no_cue; green line: red_cross_long_CTOA; black line: white_cross_no_cue). See text for details (see “Rationale”).

Mentions: Figure 4 presents the specific predictions of the two opposite hypotheses.


Proactive inhibitory control of response as the default state of executive control.

Criaud M, Wardak C, Ben Hamed S, Ballanger B, Boulinguez P - Front Psychol (2012)

Respective predictions of the temporary set and default state hypotheses of proactive inhibitory control. (A) The progress bars convey the state (ON or OFF) of proactive inhibitory control presupposed by each model at each moment in time, starting from the beginning of a trial, for each experimental condition. (B) Predictions regarding the evolution of both false alarms rate and RT according to pre-stimulus delay are presented (blue line: red_cross_no_cue; green line: red_cross_long_CTOA; black line: white_cross_no_cue). See text for details (see “Rationale”).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3293188&req=5

Figure 4: Respective predictions of the temporary set and default state hypotheses of proactive inhibitory control. (A) The progress bars convey the state (ON or OFF) of proactive inhibitory control presupposed by each model at each moment in time, starting from the beginning of a trial, for each experimental condition. (B) Predictions regarding the evolution of both false alarms rate and RT according to pre-stimulus delay are presented (blue line: red_cross_no_cue; green line: red_cross_long_CTOA; black line: white_cross_no_cue). See text for details (see “Rationale”).
Mentions: Figure 4 presents the specific predictions of the two opposite hypotheses.

Bottom Line: Refraining from reacting does not only involve reactive inhibitory mechanisms.It was recently found that inhibitory control also relies strongly on proactive mechanisms.This conclusion is discussed with regard to current anatomo-functional models of inhibitory control, and to methodological features of studies of attention and sensorimotor control.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Université de Lyon Lyon, France.

ABSTRACT
Refraining from reacting does not only involve reactive inhibitory mechanisms. It was recently found that inhibitory control also relies strongly on proactive mechanisms. However, since most available studies have focused on reactive stopping, little is known about how proactive inhibition of response is implemented. Two behavioral experiments were conducted to identify the temporal dynamics of this executive function. They manipulated respectively the time during which inhibitory control must be sustained until a stimulus occurs, and the time limit allowed to set up inhibition before a stimulus occurs. The results show that inhibitory control is not set up after but before instruction, and is not transient and sporadic but sustained across time. Consistent with our previous neuroimaging findings, these results suggest that proactive inhibition of response is the default mode of executive control. This implies that top-down control of sensorimotor reactivity would consist of a temporary release (up to several seconds), when appropriate (when the environment becomes predictable), of the default locking state. This conclusion is discussed with regard to current anatomo-functional models of inhibitory control, and to methodological features of studies of attention and sensorimotor control.

No MeSH data available.