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Obstructive sleep apnea.

Ho ML, Brass SD - Neurol Int (2011)

Bottom Line: The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences.Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study.Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UC Davis Department of Neurology, Davis Medical Center, University of California, California, USA.

ABSTRACT
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual's risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Reprinted with permission of the American Thoracic Society. Copyright (c) 2011 American Thoracic Society. White D. Pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnea. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2005; 172: 1363-1370. Official Journal of the American Thoracic Society.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection


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Figure 1: Reprinted with permission of the American Thoracic Society. Copyright (c) 2011 American Thoracic Society. White D. Pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnea. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2005; 172: 1363-1370. Official Journal of the American Thoracic Society.

Mentions: The human airway is composed of soft tissue that can collapse during REM sleep, when the muscle tone of the body relaxes. Two major factors likely contribute to OSA pathophysiology: i) craniofacial structural abnormalities can predispose patients to OSA; this has been discussed previously and has been recognized as a primary risk factor for OSA; ii) larger soft tissue mass or abnormal tissue deposits can also increase extraluminal tissue pressure and lower the threshold for airway collapse (Figure 1). In normal, nonobese individuals without OSA, muscle relaxation during sleep does not completely collapse the airway (normal). However, airway collapse can occur during muscle relaxation when there is a pathological increase in tissue pressure, as a product of extra soft tissue mass (in a normal-sized enclosure) and/or structural limitations (small maxillary or mandibular compartment) with normal tissue mass (Figure 1).31 Chronically, this dysfunction can cause problems with the regulation of pharayngeal dilator muscle activation (which plays an important role in maintaining airway patency) in patients with OSA.


Obstructive sleep apnea.

Ho ML, Brass SD - Neurol Int (2011)

Reprinted with permission of the American Thoracic Society. Copyright (c) 2011 American Thoracic Society. White D. Pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnea. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2005; 172: 1363-1370. Official Journal of the American Thoracic Society.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3286155&req=5

Figure 1: Reprinted with permission of the American Thoracic Society. Copyright (c) 2011 American Thoracic Society. White D. Pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnea. Am J Resp Crit Care Med. 2005; 172: 1363-1370. Official Journal of the American Thoracic Society.
Mentions: The human airway is composed of soft tissue that can collapse during REM sleep, when the muscle tone of the body relaxes. Two major factors likely contribute to OSA pathophysiology: i) craniofacial structural abnormalities can predispose patients to OSA; this has been discussed previously and has been recognized as a primary risk factor for OSA; ii) larger soft tissue mass or abnormal tissue deposits can also increase extraluminal tissue pressure and lower the threshold for airway collapse (Figure 1). In normal, nonobese individuals without OSA, muscle relaxation during sleep does not completely collapse the airway (normal). However, airway collapse can occur during muscle relaxation when there is a pathological increase in tissue pressure, as a product of extra soft tissue mass (in a normal-sized enclosure) and/or structural limitations (small maxillary or mandibular compartment) with normal tissue mass (Figure 1).31 Chronically, this dysfunction can cause problems with the regulation of pharayngeal dilator muscle activation (which plays an important role in maintaining airway patency) in patients with OSA.

Bottom Line: The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences.Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study.Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: UC Davis Department of Neurology, Davis Medical Center, University of California, California, USA.

ABSTRACT
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual's risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus