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Inhibition of return is no hallmark of exogenous capture by unconscious cues.

Fuchs I, Ansorge U - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

Bottom Line: This is found with a short cue-target interval (Exp. 1).However, the same cues do not lead to IOR with a long cue-target interval.Finally, no capture effect but IOR is found for consciously perceived anti-predictive cues (Exp. 5).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Inhibition of irrelevant information and response tendencies is a central characteristic of conscious control and executive functions. However, recent theories in vision considered Inhibition of Return (IOR: slower responses to attended than unattended positions) to be a hallmark of automatic exogenous capture of visual attention by unconscious cues. In the present study, we show that an unconscious cue that exogenously captures attention does not lead to IOR. First of all, subliminal cues with a contrast different from a searched-for target contrast capture attention independently of their match of contrast polarity to the search criteria. This is found with a short cue-target interval (Exp. 1). However, the same cues do not lead to IOR with a long cue-target interval. The lack of IOR is also verified for several intermediate intervals (Exp. 2), for high-contrast cues and low-contrast targets (Exp. 3), and with lower luminance cues presented on a CRT screen (Exp. 4). Finally, no capture effect but IOR is found for consciously perceived anti-predictive cues (Exp. 5). Together the results support the notion of a double dissociation between IOR and exogenous capture and are in line with a decisive role of consciousness for inhibition.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Depicted are the results (mean RTs between 350 and 550 ms) of Experiment 3. Mean RT was faster if the cue was at the same position (SP) as the target than if the cue was at a different position (DP) than the target. This was found with a short cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; solid line) but not with a long SOA (dashed line). (B) Analogous results (mean RTs between 325 and 425 ms) of Experiment 4 are plotted separately for the short (solid line) and long SOAs (dashed line), for three different conditions separately (see figure legend). For further details refer to the Methods sections of Experiments 3 and 4.
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Figure 2: (A) Depicted are the results (mean RTs between 350 and 550 ms) of Experiment 3. Mean RT was faster if the cue was at the same position (SP) as the target than if the cue was at a different position (DP) than the target. This was found with a short cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; solid line) but not with a long SOA (dashed line). (B) Analogous results (mean RTs between 325 and 425 ms) of Experiment 4 are plotted separately for the short (solid line) and long SOAs (dashed line), for three different conditions separately (see figure legend). For further details refer to the Methods sections of Experiments 3 and 4.

Mentions: Participants performed well in the target-detection task even though the target was difficult to see (mean d′ = 2.1). Again, only target-present trials were analyzed, and trials with incorrect responses (20.7%) and outlying RTs (4.4%) were excluded. See Figure 2A for the RT results. First, we tested for IOR in only the long SOAs, and calculated a repeated-measurements ANOVA with the variables cue position (SP vs. DP), and SOA (800, 1,000, or 1,200 ms) on RTs. There was neither a significant main effect of SOA nor cue position, nor a significant interaction between these variables (all ps > 0.18). Therefore, we collapsed across different long SOAs for a subsequent ANOVA, with the variables cue position (SP vs. DP), and SOA (short vs. long) on RTs. Again we found a significant main effect for SOA, F(1,13) = 63.1, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.83, indicating faster responses in the long SOAs (RT = 377 ms) than in the short SOA (RT = 510 ms). A significant interaction between cue position and SOA, F(1,13) = 7.7, p < 0.05, η2p = 0.37, and post-hoc Bonferroni-adjusted t-tests revealed a significant cueing effect in the short SOA (SP: RT = 504 ms, DP: RT = 516 ms, p < 0.05) and no effect in the long SOAs (SP: RT = 377 ms, DP: RT = 376 ms, p = 0.94).


Inhibition of return is no hallmark of exogenous capture by unconscious cues.

Fuchs I, Ansorge U - Front Hum Neurosci (2012)

(A) Depicted are the results (mean RTs between 350 and 550 ms) of Experiment 3. Mean RT was faster if the cue was at the same position (SP) as the target than if the cue was at a different position (DP) than the target. This was found with a short cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; solid line) but not with a long SOA (dashed line). (B) Analogous results (mean RTs between 325 and 425 ms) of Experiment 4 are plotted separately for the short (solid line) and long SOAs (dashed line), for three different conditions separately (see figure legend). For further details refer to the Methods sections of Experiments 3 and 4.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3285796&req=5

Figure 2: (A) Depicted are the results (mean RTs between 350 and 550 ms) of Experiment 3. Mean RT was faster if the cue was at the same position (SP) as the target than if the cue was at a different position (DP) than the target. This was found with a short cue-target stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; solid line) but not with a long SOA (dashed line). (B) Analogous results (mean RTs between 325 and 425 ms) of Experiment 4 are plotted separately for the short (solid line) and long SOAs (dashed line), for three different conditions separately (see figure legend). For further details refer to the Methods sections of Experiments 3 and 4.
Mentions: Participants performed well in the target-detection task even though the target was difficult to see (mean d′ = 2.1). Again, only target-present trials were analyzed, and trials with incorrect responses (20.7%) and outlying RTs (4.4%) were excluded. See Figure 2A for the RT results. First, we tested for IOR in only the long SOAs, and calculated a repeated-measurements ANOVA with the variables cue position (SP vs. DP), and SOA (800, 1,000, or 1,200 ms) on RTs. There was neither a significant main effect of SOA nor cue position, nor a significant interaction between these variables (all ps > 0.18). Therefore, we collapsed across different long SOAs for a subsequent ANOVA, with the variables cue position (SP vs. DP), and SOA (short vs. long) on RTs. Again we found a significant main effect for SOA, F(1,13) = 63.1, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.83, indicating faster responses in the long SOAs (RT = 377 ms) than in the short SOA (RT = 510 ms). A significant interaction between cue position and SOA, F(1,13) = 7.7, p < 0.05, η2p = 0.37, and post-hoc Bonferroni-adjusted t-tests revealed a significant cueing effect in the short SOA (SP: RT = 504 ms, DP: RT = 516 ms, p < 0.05) and no effect in the long SOAs (SP: RT = 377 ms, DP: RT = 376 ms, p = 0.94).

Bottom Line: This is found with a short cue-target interval (Exp. 1).However, the same cues do not lead to IOR with a long cue-target interval.Finally, no capture effect but IOR is found for consciously perceived anti-predictive cues (Exp. 5).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Psychology, University of Vienna Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Inhibition of irrelevant information and response tendencies is a central characteristic of conscious control and executive functions. However, recent theories in vision considered Inhibition of Return (IOR: slower responses to attended than unattended positions) to be a hallmark of automatic exogenous capture of visual attention by unconscious cues. In the present study, we show that an unconscious cue that exogenously captures attention does not lead to IOR. First of all, subliminal cues with a contrast different from a searched-for target contrast capture attention independently of their match of contrast polarity to the search criteria. This is found with a short cue-target interval (Exp. 1). However, the same cues do not lead to IOR with a long cue-target interval. The lack of IOR is also verified for several intermediate intervals (Exp. 2), for high-contrast cues and low-contrast targets (Exp. 3), and with lower luminance cues presented on a CRT screen (Exp. 4). Finally, no capture effect but IOR is found for consciously perceived anti-predictive cues (Exp. 5). Together the results support the notion of a double dissociation between IOR and exogenous capture and are in line with a decisive role of consciousness for inhibition.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus