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Genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene cluster on linkage group 16 in apple.

Pagliarani G, Paris R, Iorio AR, Tartarini S, Del Duca S, Arens P, Peters S, van de Weg E - Mol. Breed. (2011)

Bottom Line: The results provided new information on the composition of this family with respect to the number and orientation of functional and pseudogenes and their physical distances.The results were compared with the apple and peach genome sequences that have recently been made available.ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9588-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
European populations exhibit progressive sensitisation to food allergens, and apples are one of the foods for which sensitisation is observed most frequently. Apple cultivars vary greatly in their allergenic characteristics, and a better understanding of the genetic basis of low allergenicity may therefore allow allergic individuals to increase their fruit intake. Mal d 1 is considered to be a major apple allergen, and this protein is encoded by the most complex allergen gene family. Not all Mal d 1 members are likely to be involved in allergenicity. Therefore, additional knowledge about the existence and characteristics of the different Mal d 1 genes is required. In the present study, we investigated the genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene cluster in linkage group 16 of apple through the sequencing of two bacterial artificial chromosome clones. The results provided new information on the composition of this family with respect to the number and orientation of functional and pseudogenes and their physical distances. The results were compared with the apple and peach genome sequences that have recently been made available. A broad analysis of the whole apple genome revealed the presence of new genes in this family, and a complete list of the observed Mal d 1 genes is supplied. Thus, this study provides an important contribution towards a better understanding of the genetics of the Mal d 1 family and establishes the basis for further research on allelic diversity among cultivars in relation to variation in allergenicity. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9588-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Alignment of predicted amino acid sequences of Mal d 1 isoforms. Mal d 1 sequences were retrieved from the BAC clones sequences and from Gbrowser of the apple genome sequence. Two Bet v 1 isoforms, Bet v 1.01 and Bet v 1.04, are also included. The sequences are indicated with the isoform name followed by the ID number and the LG in which they are located. The P-loop region is indicated by the dashed box; substitutions between Bet v 1 sequences are indicated as small boxes; the position 45 is highlighted in red and the other amino acids putatively important for IgE recognition are within brackets or large boxes. Important amino acid substitutions are shown as circles
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Fig3: Alignment of predicted amino acid sequences of Mal d 1 isoforms. Mal d 1 sequences were retrieved from the BAC clones sequences and from Gbrowser of the apple genome sequence. Two Bet v 1 isoforms, Bet v 1.01 and Bet v 1.04, are also included. The sequences are indicated with the isoform name followed by the ID number and the LG in which they are located. The P-loop region is indicated by the dashed box; substitutions between Bet v 1 sequences are indicated as small boxes; the position 45 is highlighted in red and the other amino acids putatively important for IgE recognition are within brackets or large boxes. Important amino acid substitutions are shown as circles

Mentions: The alignment of all the different isoform sequences shown in Fig. 3 indicated that the P-loop region (glycine-rich loop, GXGGXGXXK) is highly conserved among Mal d 1 proteins, being reported for all the representative members of Bet v 1-like proteins in different species (Spangfort et al. 1997). Only a few substitutions appeared in this domain among the predicted Mal d 1 proteins: a lysine replaced by a glutamine in Mal d 1.08 and by a methionine in Mal d 1.09; the third glycine is replaced by glutamic acid in Mal d 1.11A and Mal d 1.11B and by arginine in Mal d 1.12. Unspecified amino acids are present in the P-loop of two new isoforms, Mal d 1.03H and Mal d 1.03J. It would be interesting to know whether any of these differences in amino acid composition affects the functionality of these isoforms and the allergenicity of apples.Fig. 3


Genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene cluster on linkage group 16 in apple.

Pagliarani G, Paris R, Iorio AR, Tartarini S, Del Duca S, Arens P, Peters S, van de Weg E - Mol. Breed. (2011)

Alignment of predicted amino acid sequences of Mal d 1 isoforms. Mal d 1 sequences were retrieved from the BAC clones sequences and from Gbrowser of the apple genome sequence. Two Bet v 1 isoforms, Bet v 1.01 and Bet v 1.04, are also included. The sequences are indicated with the isoform name followed by the ID number and the LG in which they are located. The P-loop region is indicated by the dashed box; substitutions between Bet v 1 sequences are indicated as small boxes; the position 45 is highlighted in red and the other amino acids putatively important for IgE recognition are within brackets or large boxes. Important amino acid substitutions are shown as circles
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3285766&req=5

Fig3: Alignment of predicted amino acid sequences of Mal d 1 isoforms. Mal d 1 sequences were retrieved from the BAC clones sequences and from Gbrowser of the apple genome sequence. Two Bet v 1 isoforms, Bet v 1.01 and Bet v 1.04, are also included. The sequences are indicated with the isoform name followed by the ID number and the LG in which they are located. The P-loop region is indicated by the dashed box; substitutions between Bet v 1 sequences are indicated as small boxes; the position 45 is highlighted in red and the other amino acids putatively important for IgE recognition are within brackets or large boxes. Important amino acid substitutions are shown as circles
Mentions: The alignment of all the different isoform sequences shown in Fig. 3 indicated that the P-loop region (glycine-rich loop, GXGGXGXXK) is highly conserved among Mal d 1 proteins, being reported for all the representative members of Bet v 1-like proteins in different species (Spangfort et al. 1997). Only a few substitutions appeared in this domain among the predicted Mal d 1 proteins: a lysine replaced by a glutamine in Mal d 1.08 and by a methionine in Mal d 1.09; the third glycine is replaced by glutamic acid in Mal d 1.11A and Mal d 1.11B and by arginine in Mal d 1.12. Unspecified amino acids are present in the P-loop of two new isoforms, Mal d 1.03H and Mal d 1.03J. It would be interesting to know whether any of these differences in amino acid composition affects the functionality of these isoforms and the allergenicity of apples.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: The results provided new information on the composition of this family with respect to the number and orientation of functional and pseudogenes and their physical distances.The results were compared with the apple and peach genome sequences that have recently been made available.ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9588-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
European populations exhibit progressive sensitisation to food allergens, and apples are one of the foods for which sensitisation is observed most frequently. Apple cultivars vary greatly in their allergenic characteristics, and a better understanding of the genetic basis of low allergenicity may therefore allow allergic individuals to increase their fruit intake. Mal d 1 is considered to be a major apple allergen, and this protein is encoded by the most complex allergen gene family. Not all Mal d 1 members are likely to be involved in allergenicity. Therefore, additional knowledge about the existence and characteristics of the different Mal d 1 genes is required. In the present study, we investigated the genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene cluster in linkage group 16 of apple through the sequencing of two bacterial artificial chromosome clones. The results provided new information on the composition of this family with respect to the number and orientation of functional and pseudogenes and their physical distances. The results were compared with the apple and peach genome sequences that have recently been made available. A broad analysis of the whole apple genome revealed the presence of new genes in this family, and a complete list of the observed Mal d 1 genes is supplied. Thus, this study provides an important contribution towards a better understanding of the genetics of the Mal d 1 family and establishes the basis for further research on allelic diversity among cultivars in relation to variation in allergenicity. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9588-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus