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Genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene cluster on linkage group 16 in apple.

Pagliarani G, Paris R, Iorio AR, Tartarini S, Del Duca S, Arens P, Peters S, van de Weg E - Mol. Breed. (2011)

Bottom Line: The results provided new information on the composition of this family with respect to the number and orientation of functional and pseudogenes and their physical distances.The results were compared with the apple and peach genome sequences that have recently been made available.ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9588-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
European populations exhibit progressive sensitisation to food allergens, and apples are one of the foods for which sensitisation is observed most frequently. Apple cultivars vary greatly in their allergenic characteristics, and a better understanding of the genetic basis of low allergenicity may therefore allow allergic individuals to increase their fruit intake. Mal d 1 is considered to be a major apple allergen, and this protein is encoded by the most complex allergen gene family. Not all Mal d 1 members are likely to be involved in allergenicity. Therefore, additional knowledge about the existence and characteristics of the different Mal d 1 genes is required. In the present study, we investigated the genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene cluster in linkage group 16 of apple through the sequencing of two bacterial artificial chromosome clones. The results provided new information on the composition of this family with respect to the number and orientation of functional and pseudogenes and their physical distances. The results were compared with the apple and peach genome sequences that have recently been made available. A broad analysis of the whole apple genome revealed the presence of new genes in this family, and a complete list of the observed Mal d 1 genes is supplied. Thus, this study provides an important contribution towards a better understanding of the genetics of the Mal d 1 family and establishes the basis for further research on allelic diversity among cultivars in relation to variation in allergenicity. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9588-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic overview of Mal d 1 allergen gene positions in the apple genetic map. Genetic positions of Mal d 1 loci are estimated through retrieval of their physical location in the GD whole genome relative to reference marker sequences. Genetic positions of reference markers are indicated according to Supplementary Figure 9 in Velasco et al. (2010). Mal d 1 loci in new genomic regions are underlined; *Mal d 1.05 in tandem duplication
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Fig2: Schematic overview of Mal d 1 allergen gene positions in the apple genetic map. Genetic positions of Mal d 1 loci are estimated through retrieval of their physical location in the GD whole genome relative to reference marker sequences. Genetic positions of reference markers are indicated according to Supplementary Figure 9 in Velasco et al. (2010). Mal d 1 loci in new genomic regions are underlined; *Mal d 1.05 in tandem duplication

Mentions: The recently released draft genome sequence of domesticated apple (Velasco et al. 2010) provided a further opportunity to study the genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene family in apple and to compare the Florina BAC sequences with the corresponding region of Golden Delicious (GD). A total of 49 Mal d 1-like sequences were retrieved from the whole GD genome and located on five different chromosomes, including the homeologous LG16 (region from position 10,737,669 to 11,436,747) and LG13 (from position 9,828,373 to 14,597,852), LG 6, LG 4 and LG 1 (Fig. 2). Ten of these sequences were additional to those recently retrieved by Yang et al. (2011) (Online Resources 7 and 8). Note that Yang et al. (2011) used different gene denotations for Mal d 1.10 and following genes, probably because they were not aware that prior to the acceptance of their paper genes Mal d 1.10 to Mal d 1.12 had already been assigned through a NCBI deposited sequence (FN823234).Fig. 2


Genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene cluster on linkage group 16 in apple.

Pagliarani G, Paris R, Iorio AR, Tartarini S, Del Duca S, Arens P, Peters S, van de Weg E - Mol. Breed. (2011)

Schematic overview of Mal d 1 allergen gene positions in the apple genetic map. Genetic positions of Mal d 1 loci are estimated through retrieval of their physical location in the GD whole genome relative to reference marker sequences. Genetic positions of reference markers are indicated according to Supplementary Figure 9 in Velasco et al. (2010). Mal d 1 loci in new genomic regions are underlined; *Mal d 1.05 in tandem duplication
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3285766&req=5

Fig2: Schematic overview of Mal d 1 allergen gene positions in the apple genetic map. Genetic positions of Mal d 1 loci are estimated through retrieval of their physical location in the GD whole genome relative to reference marker sequences. Genetic positions of reference markers are indicated according to Supplementary Figure 9 in Velasco et al. (2010). Mal d 1 loci in new genomic regions are underlined; *Mal d 1.05 in tandem duplication
Mentions: The recently released draft genome sequence of domesticated apple (Velasco et al. 2010) provided a further opportunity to study the genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene family in apple and to compare the Florina BAC sequences with the corresponding region of Golden Delicious (GD). A total of 49 Mal d 1-like sequences were retrieved from the whole GD genome and located on five different chromosomes, including the homeologous LG16 (region from position 10,737,669 to 11,436,747) and LG13 (from position 9,828,373 to 14,597,852), LG 6, LG 4 and LG 1 (Fig. 2). Ten of these sequences were additional to those recently retrieved by Yang et al. (2011) (Online Resources 7 and 8). Note that Yang et al. (2011) used different gene denotations for Mal d 1.10 and following genes, probably because they were not aware that prior to the acceptance of their paper genes Mal d 1.10 to Mal d 1.12 had already been assigned through a NCBI deposited sequence (FN823234).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The results provided new information on the composition of this family with respect to the number and orientation of functional and pseudogenes and their physical distances.The results were compared with the apple and peach genome sequences that have recently been made available.ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9588-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT
European populations exhibit progressive sensitisation to food allergens, and apples are one of the foods for which sensitisation is observed most frequently. Apple cultivars vary greatly in their allergenic characteristics, and a better understanding of the genetic basis of low allergenicity may therefore allow allergic individuals to increase their fruit intake. Mal d 1 is considered to be a major apple allergen, and this protein is encoded by the most complex allergen gene family. Not all Mal d 1 members are likely to be involved in allergenicity. Therefore, additional knowledge about the existence and characteristics of the different Mal d 1 genes is required. In the present study, we investigated the genomic organisation of the Mal d 1 gene cluster in linkage group 16 of apple through the sequencing of two bacterial artificial chromosome clones. The results provided new information on the composition of this family with respect to the number and orientation of functional and pseudogenes and their physical distances. The results were compared with the apple and peach genome sequences that have recently been made available. A broad analysis of the whole apple genome revealed the presence of new genes in this family, and a complete list of the observed Mal d 1 genes is supplied. Thus, this study provides an important contribution towards a better understanding of the genetics of the Mal d 1 family and establishes the basis for further research on allelic diversity among cultivars in relation to variation in allergenicity. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-011-9588-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus