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Predicting psychopharmacological drug effects on actual driving performance (SDLP) from psychometric tests measuring driving-related skills.

Verster JC, Roth T - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2011)

Bottom Line: Subjects were instructed to drive with a constant speed and steady lateral position within the right traffic lane.Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car, was determined.Difference scores from placebo for parameters of the psychometric tests and SDLP were computed and correlated with each other.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands. j.c.verster@uu.nl

ABSTRACT

Rationale: There are various methods to examine driving ability. Comparisons between these methods and their relationship with actual on-road driving is often not determined.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory tests measuring driving-related skills could adequately predict on-the-road driving performance during normal traffic.

Methods: Ninety-six healthy volunteers performed a standardized on-the-road driving test. Subjects were instructed to drive with a constant speed and steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car, was determined. The subjects also performed a psychometric test battery including the DSST, Sternberg memory scanning test, a tracking test, and a divided attention test. Difference scores from placebo for parameters of the psychometric tests and SDLP were computed and correlated with each other. A stepwise linear regression analysis determined the predictive validity of the laboratory test battery to SDLP.

Results: Stepwise regression analyses revealed that the combination of five parameters, hard tracking, tracking and reaction time of the divided attention test, and reaction time and percentage of errors of the Sternberg memory scanning test, together had a predictive validity of 33.4%.

Conclusion: The psychometric tests in this test battery showed insufficient predictive validity to replace the on-the-road driving test during normal traffic.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

A model of driving behavior according to Rasmussen and Michon. Experienced drivers operate at the gray-scaled diagonal of Fig. 2, whereas novice drivers operate in the upper right corner of the figure
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Fig1: A model of driving behavior according to Rasmussen and Michon. Experienced drivers operate at the gray-scaled diagonal of Fig. 2, whereas novice drivers operate in the upper right corner of the figure

Mentions: Like many behaviors, driving a car is a mix of automatic and controlled behaviors [Schneider and Shiffrin 1977; Shiffrin and Schneider 1977). Rasmussen (1987) explains driving behavior distinguishing three levels of cognitive control: skill-based, rule-based, and knowledge-based behavior (see Fig. 1). Skill-based behavior comprises automatic and effortless routine driving (e.g., changing gear). In contrast, rule-based and knowledge-based behaviors are controlled actions to deal with changing driving circumstances. Rule-based behavior follows prescribed rules (e.g., passing a slower vehicle). With increased driving experience, and if the rules show to be effective, rule-based behavior becomes automatic (skill-based) behavior. If rule-based behavior is not effective, conscious problem solving (knowledge-based behavior) is necessary to master the new situation. When the driver becomes familiar with the new driving situation, behavior starts following rules (rule-based behavior) or may become more or less automatic (skill-based level). A similar model by Michon (1985) explained driving at the strategic (navigation), maneuvering (tactical), and operational level. Performance at the strategic level is predominantly memory-driven, controlled processing, and concerns trip-planning and achievement of goals. Performance at the maneuvering level is environmental/data-driven, controlled processing, and includes normal driving procedures such as passing other cars or reacting to other traffic. At the operational level, behavior is automatic and concerns immediate vehicle control, such as changing gear. Decisions made at the strategic level take minutes, those made the maneuvering level are made within seconds, and at the operational level, decisions are made within 1 s. The relationship between the models of Rasmussen and Michon is shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 1


Predicting psychopharmacological drug effects on actual driving performance (SDLP) from psychometric tests measuring driving-related skills.

Verster JC, Roth T - Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2011)

A model of driving behavior according to Rasmussen and Michon. Experienced drivers operate at the gray-scaled diagonal of Fig. 2, whereas novice drivers operate in the upper right corner of the figure
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3285752&req=5

Fig1: A model of driving behavior according to Rasmussen and Michon. Experienced drivers operate at the gray-scaled diagonal of Fig. 2, whereas novice drivers operate in the upper right corner of the figure
Mentions: Like many behaviors, driving a car is a mix of automatic and controlled behaviors [Schneider and Shiffrin 1977; Shiffrin and Schneider 1977). Rasmussen (1987) explains driving behavior distinguishing three levels of cognitive control: skill-based, rule-based, and knowledge-based behavior (see Fig. 1). Skill-based behavior comprises automatic and effortless routine driving (e.g., changing gear). In contrast, rule-based and knowledge-based behaviors are controlled actions to deal with changing driving circumstances. Rule-based behavior follows prescribed rules (e.g., passing a slower vehicle). With increased driving experience, and if the rules show to be effective, rule-based behavior becomes automatic (skill-based) behavior. If rule-based behavior is not effective, conscious problem solving (knowledge-based behavior) is necessary to master the new situation. When the driver becomes familiar with the new driving situation, behavior starts following rules (rule-based behavior) or may become more or less automatic (skill-based level). A similar model by Michon (1985) explained driving at the strategic (navigation), maneuvering (tactical), and operational level. Performance at the strategic level is predominantly memory-driven, controlled processing, and concerns trip-planning and achievement of goals. Performance at the maneuvering level is environmental/data-driven, controlled processing, and includes normal driving procedures such as passing other cars or reacting to other traffic. At the operational level, behavior is automatic and concerns immediate vehicle control, such as changing gear. Decisions made at the strategic level take minutes, those made the maneuvering level are made within seconds, and at the operational level, decisions are made within 1 s. The relationship between the models of Rasmussen and Michon is shown in Fig. 1.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Subjects were instructed to drive with a constant speed and steady lateral position within the right traffic lane.Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car, was determined.Difference scores from placebo for parameters of the psychometric tests and SDLP were computed and correlated with each other.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands. j.c.verster@uu.nl

ABSTRACT

Rationale: There are various methods to examine driving ability. Comparisons between these methods and their relationship with actual on-road driving is often not determined.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory tests measuring driving-related skills could adequately predict on-the-road driving performance during normal traffic.

Methods: Ninety-six healthy volunteers performed a standardized on-the-road driving test. Subjects were instructed to drive with a constant speed and steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car, was determined. The subjects also performed a psychometric test battery including the DSST, Sternberg memory scanning test, a tracking test, and a divided attention test. Difference scores from placebo for parameters of the psychometric tests and SDLP were computed and correlated with each other. A stepwise linear regression analysis determined the predictive validity of the laboratory test battery to SDLP.

Results: Stepwise regression analyses revealed that the combination of five parameters, hard tracking, tracking and reaction time of the divided attention test, and reaction time and percentage of errors of the Sternberg memory scanning test, together had a predictive validity of 33.4%.

Conclusion: The psychometric tests in this test battery showed insufficient predictive validity to replace the on-the-road driving test during normal traffic.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus