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Impaired design fluency is a marker of pathological cognitive aging; results from the Korean longitudinal study on health and aging.

Chi YK, Kim TH, Han JW, Lee SB, Park JH, Lee JJ, Youn JC, Jhoo JH, Lee DY, Kim KW - Psychiatry Investig (2012)

Bottom Line: We examined the main effects of participants' diagnoses (PCA, NCA) and age (65-69 years old, 70-74 years old and 75 years old or over) on their test performance using multivariate analysis of variance.The main effects of both the diagnosis (F=2.860, p=0.002) and the age group (F=2.484, p<0.001) were significant.The main effect of age remained significant in the TMT-B (F=8.737, p<0.001) after Bonferroni correction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Objective: We investigated neuropsychological markers that can be used to discriminate pathological cognitive aging from normal cognitive aging.

Methods: We administered frontal lobe function tests including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), digit span test, lexical fluency test, fixed condition design fluency test, and Trail Making Test B (TMT-B) to 92 individuals with pathological cognitive aging (PCA) and 222 individuals with normal cognitive aging (NCA). We examined the main effects of participants' diagnoses (PCA, NCA) and age (65-69 years old, 70-74 years old and 75 years old or over) on their test performance using multivariate analysis of variance.

Results: The main effects of both the diagnosis (F=2.860, p=0.002) and the age group (F=2.484, p<0.001) were significant. The PCA group showed lower performance on the backward digit span test (F=14.306, p<0.001), fixed condition design fluency test (F=8.347, p=0.004) and also exhibited perseverative errors in the WCST (F=4.19, p=0.042) compared with the NCA group. The main effect of the diagnosis on the backward digit span test and the fixed condition design fluency test remained significant after Bonferroni correction. The main effect of age remained significant in the TMT-B (F=8.737, p<0.001) after Bonferroni correction. Other test scores were not influenced by diagnosis or age.

Conclusion: The design fluency task may be a good neuropsychological marker to assess pathological cognitive aging.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Comparison of the performances in the fixed condition design fluency test between the normal cognitive aging group and pathological cognitive aging group.
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Figure 1: Comparison of the performances in the fixed condition design fluency test between the normal cognitive aging group and pathological cognitive aging group.

Mentions: The design fluency test requires more divergent thinking than verbal fluency test.31 Although verbal fluency tests require the ability to produce words, the words that can be produced are not novel given that they are stored in the individual's existing lexicon or verbal knowledge. Therefore verbal fluency tests assess retrieval processes from lexical and semantic memory32 rather than productive thinking. By contrast, the design fluency test can examine the ability to create novel responses without repetition, and flexible thinking because it is de-signed to assess visual inventiveness which could not named (Figure 1).18 This creativity is fostered by the frontal lobe, particularly the prefrontal cortex.33,34 In this sense, the design fluency test may assess more specifically frontal lobe functioning than verbal fluency tests do. In addition, the design fluency test may be sensitive to changes in either the dominant or non-dominant hemisphere. In some previous studies, verbal fluency tasks were related to activation of the left frontal lobe wh-ereas the design fluency task was related to activation of both left and right frontal lobes.18,35


Impaired design fluency is a marker of pathological cognitive aging; results from the Korean longitudinal study on health and aging.

Chi YK, Kim TH, Han JW, Lee SB, Park JH, Lee JJ, Youn JC, Jhoo JH, Lee DY, Kim KW - Psychiatry Investig (2012)

Comparison of the performances in the fixed condition design fluency test between the normal cognitive aging group and pathological cognitive aging group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3285742&req=5

Figure 1: Comparison of the performances in the fixed condition design fluency test between the normal cognitive aging group and pathological cognitive aging group.
Mentions: The design fluency test requires more divergent thinking than verbal fluency test.31 Although verbal fluency tests require the ability to produce words, the words that can be produced are not novel given that they are stored in the individual's existing lexicon or verbal knowledge. Therefore verbal fluency tests assess retrieval processes from lexical and semantic memory32 rather than productive thinking. By contrast, the design fluency test can examine the ability to create novel responses without repetition, and flexible thinking because it is de-signed to assess visual inventiveness which could not named (Figure 1).18 This creativity is fostered by the frontal lobe, particularly the prefrontal cortex.33,34 In this sense, the design fluency test may assess more specifically frontal lobe functioning than verbal fluency tests do. In addition, the design fluency test may be sensitive to changes in either the dominant or non-dominant hemisphere. In some previous studies, verbal fluency tasks were related to activation of the left frontal lobe wh-ereas the design fluency task was related to activation of both left and right frontal lobes.18,35

Bottom Line: We examined the main effects of participants' diagnoses (PCA, NCA) and age (65-69 years old, 70-74 years old and 75 years old or over) on their test performance using multivariate analysis of variance.The main effects of both the diagnosis (F=2.860, p=0.002) and the age group (F=2.484, p<0.001) were significant.The main effect of age remained significant in the TMT-B (F=8.737, p<0.001) after Bonferroni correction.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Objective: We investigated neuropsychological markers that can be used to discriminate pathological cognitive aging from normal cognitive aging.

Methods: We administered frontal lobe function tests including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), digit span test, lexical fluency test, fixed condition design fluency test, and Trail Making Test B (TMT-B) to 92 individuals with pathological cognitive aging (PCA) and 222 individuals with normal cognitive aging (NCA). We examined the main effects of participants' diagnoses (PCA, NCA) and age (65-69 years old, 70-74 years old and 75 years old or over) on their test performance using multivariate analysis of variance.

Results: The main effects of both the diagnosis (F=2.860, p=0.002) and the age group (F=2.484, p<0.001) were significant. The PCA group showed lower performance on the backward digit span test (F=14.306, p<0.001), fixed condition design fluency test (F=8.347, p=0.004) and also exhibited perseverative errors in the WCST (F=4.19, p=0.042) compared with the NCA group. The main effect of the diagnosis on the backward digit span test and the fixed condition design fluency test remained significant after Bonferroni correction. The main effect of age remained significant in the TMT-B (F=8.737, p<0.001) after Bonferroni correction. Other test scores were not influenced by diagnosis or age.

Conclusion: The design fluency task may be a good neuropsychological marker to assess pathological cognitive aging.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus