Limits...
Scopolamine administration modulates muscarinic, nicotinic and NMDA receptor systems.

Falsafi SK, Deli A, Höger H, Pollak A, Lubec G - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported.Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided.Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported. We hypothesized that levels of other cholinergic brain receptors as the nicotinic receptors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, known to be involved in memory formation, would be modified by scopolamine administration.C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments and divided into four groups. Two groups were given scopolamine 1 mg/kg i.p. (the first group was trained and the second group untrained) in the multiple T-maze (MTM), a paradigm for evaluation of spatial memory. Likewise, vehicle-treated mice were trained or untrained thus serving as controls. Hippocampal levels of M1, nicotinic receptor alpha 4 (Nic4) and 7 (Nic7) and subunit NR1containing complexes were determined by immunoblotting on blue native gel electrophoresis.Vehicle-treated trained mice learned the task and showed memory retrieval on day 8, while scopolamine-treatment led to significant impairment of performance in the MTM. At the day of retrieval, hippocampal levels for M1, Nic7 and NR1 were higher in the scopolamine treated groups than in vehicle-treated groups.The concerted action, i.e. the pattern of four brain receptor complexes regulated by the anticholinergic compound scopolamine, is shown. Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided. Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Scheme of multiple T-maze.The multiple T-maze is a landmaze paradigm testing spatial memory. Animals with food deprivation search for food that is provided in the goal box.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3285663&req=5

pone-0032082-g009: Scheme of multiple T-maze.The multiple T-maze is a landmaze paradigm testing spatial memory. Animals with food deprivation search for food that is provided in the goal box.

Mentions: In this spatial learning task, animals learn to find the goal box based on their memory of previously visited arms [80], [86], [87]. The MTM is constructed of wood and consists of a wooden platform with seven choice points and the dimensions 150 cm×130 cm×15 cm and a path width of 8 cm (figure 9). Prior to testing, mice were deprived of food for 16 h to motivate food searching. Mice were placed in a start box in a black cylindrical start chamber. Each trial started with them leaving the start box and was completed when mice had reached the goal box or, if failed, after 5 min. Upon arriving in the goal box, mice were allowed to consume a small piece of a food pellet as provided reward and transferred to their home cage. Immediately after each trial, the entire maze was cleaned with 1% incidin solution. After testing, animals were given food as per body weight (120 g/kg) into the home cage, representing the amount to maintain their body weight but keep them hungry for the following day for MTM tests. Mice were trained with 3 trials per day for 4 days. Trials were carried out using 20 min intervals. Trials were recorded using a computerized tracking/image analyzer system (video camcorder: 1/3 in. SSAMHR EX VIEWHAD coupled with computational tracking system: TiBeSplit). The system provided the following parameters, correct or wrong decisions (wrong means a path ending), path length and latency to reach the goal box. On the eighth experimental day (memory retention), subjects were undergoing a probe trial for 5 min. Mice were allowed to explore the maze and path length, time to reach the goal and correct and wrong decisions were recorded.


Scopolamine administration modulates muscarinic, nicotinic and NMDA receptor systems.

Falsafi SK, Deli A, Höger H, Pollak A, Lubec G - PLoS ONE (2012)

Scheme of multiple T-maze.The multiple T-maze is a landmaze paradigm testing spatial memory. Animals with food deprivation search for food that is provided in the goal box.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3285663&req=5

pone-0032082-g009: Scheme of multiple T-maze.The multiple T-maze is a landmaze paradigm testing spatial memory. Animals with food deprivation search for food that is provided in the goal box.
Mentions: In this spatial learning task, animals learn to find the goal box based on their memory of previously visited arms [80], [86], [87]. The MTM is constructed of wood and consists of a wooden platform with seven choice points and the dimensions 150 cm×130 cm×15 cm and a path width of 8 cm (figure 9). Prior to testing, mice were deprived of food for 16 h to motivate food searching. Mice were placed in a start box in a black cylindrical start chamber. Each trial started with them leaving the start box and was completed when mice had reached the goal box or, if failed, after 5 min. Upon arriving in the goal box, mice were allowed to consume a small piece of a food pellet as provided reward and transferred to their home cage. Immediately after each trial, the entire maze was cleaned with 1% incidin solution. After testing, animals were given food as per body weight (120 g/kg) into the home cage, representing the amount to maintain their body weight but keep them hungry for the following day for MTM tests. Mice were trained with 3 trials per day for 4 days. Trials were carried out using 20 min intervals. Trials were recorded using a computerized tracking/image analyzer system (video camcorder: 1/3 in. SSAMHR EX VIEWHAD coupled with computational tracking system: TiBeSplit). The system provided the following parameters, correct or wrong decisions (wrong means a path ending), path length and latency to reach the goal box. On the eighth experimental day (memory retention), subjects were undergoing a probe trial for 5 min. Mice were allowed to explore the maze and path length, time to reach the goal and correct and wrong decisions were recorded.

Bottom Line: Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported.Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided.Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Studies on the effect of scopolamine on memory are abundant but so far only regulation of the muscarinic receptor (M1) has been reported. We hypothesized that levels of other cholinergic brain receptors as the nicotinic receptors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, known to be involved in memory formation, would be modified by scopolamine administration.C57BL/6J mice were used for the experiments and divided into four groups. Two groups were given scopolamine 1 mg/kg i.p. (the first group was trained and the second group untrained) in the multiple T-maze (MTM), a paradigm for evaluation of spatial memory. Likewise, vehicle-treated mice were trained or untrained thus serving as controls. Hippocampal levels of M1, nicotinic receptor alpha 4 (Nic4) and 7 (Nic7) and subunit NR1containing complexes were determined by immunoblotting on blue native gel electrophoresis.Vehicle-treated trained mice learned the task and showed memory retrieval on day 8, while scopolamine-treatment led to significant impairment of performance in the MTM. At the day of retrieval, hippocampal levels for M1, Nic7 and NR1 were higher in the scopolamine treated groups than in vehicle-treated groups.The concerted action, i.e. the pattern of four brain receptor complexes regulated by the anticholinergic compound scopolamine, is shown. Insight into probable action mechanisms of scopolamine at the brain receptor complex level in the hippocampus is provided. Scopolamine treatment is a standard approach to test cognitive enhancers and other psychoactive compounds in pharmacological studies and therefore knowledge on mechanisms is of pivotal interest.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus