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Age as a determinant for dissemination of seasonal and pandemic influenza: an open cohort study of influenza outbreaks in Östergötland County, Sweden.

Timpka T, Eriksson O, Spreco A, Gursky EA, Strömgren M, Holm E, Ekberg J, Dahlström O, Valter L, Eriksson H - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: The proportion of cases from the age groups 10-19 (p<0.001) and 20-29 years old (p<0.01) were found to be larger during the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 than during the seasonal outbreaks.An interaction between age and outbreak was observed (p<0.001) indicating a difference in age effects between circulating virus types; this interaction persisted for seasonal outbreaks only (p<0.001).Disentangling these effects on the causal pathways will require an integrated information infrastructure for data collection and repeated studies of well-defined communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, Östergötland County Council, Linköping, Sweden. toomas.timpka@liu.se

ABSTRACT
An understanding of the occurrence and comparative timing of influenza infections in different age groups is important for developing community response and disease control measures. This study uses data from a Scandinavian county (population 427.000) to investigate whether age was a determinant for being diagnosed with influenza 2005-2010 and to examine if age was associated with case timing during outbreaks. Aggregated demographic data were collected from Statistics Sweden, while influenza case data were collected from a county-wide electronic health record system. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether case risk was associated with age and outbreak. An analysis of variance was used to explore whether day for diagnosis was also associated to age and outbreak. The clinical case data were validated against case data from microbiological laboratories during one control year. The proportion of cases from the age groups 10-19 (p<0.001) and 20-29 years old (p<0.01) were found to be larger during the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 than during the seasonal outbreaks. An interaction between age and outbreak was observed (p<0.001) indicating a difference in age effects between circulating virus types; this interaction persisted for seasonal outbreaks only (p<0.001). The outbreaks also differed regarding when the age groups received their diagnosis (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis showed a tendency for the young age groups, in particular the group 10-19 year olds, led outbreaks with influenza type A H1 circulating, while A H3N2 outbreaks displayed little variations in timing. The validation analysis showed a strong correlation (r = 0.625;p<0.001) between the recorded numbers of clinically and microbiologically defined influenza cases. Our findings demonstrate the complexity of age effects underlying the emergence of local influenza outbreaks. Disentangling these effects on the causal pathways will require an integrated information infrastructure for data collection and repeated studies of well-defined communities.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

RIR diagrams for seasonal influenza outbreaks in Östergötland county 2006–2009.
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pone-0031746-g003: RIR diagrams for seasonal influenza outbreaks in Östergötland county 2006–2009.

Mentions: RIR-curves comparing the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 to the mean for the four seasonal outbreaks are displayed in Figure 2. Larger proportion of influenza cases were attributed to the ages 10–19 (p<0.001) and 20–29 years old (p<0.01) during the A pH1N1 outbreak than during the seasonal outbreaks, while the proportion of cases observed in the age groups 0–9 years (p<0.05), 50–59 years (p<0.05), and 60–69 years (p<0.01) were larger during the seasonal outbreaks. Corresponding curves for each seasonal outbreak are displayed in Figure 3. It is noteworthy that higher- than- expected proportions of cases were distributed to the middle-aged groups (30–39 and 40–49 years) during all seasonal outbreaks except the A H3 and A H1N1 outbreak in 2006.


Age as a determinant for dissemination of seasonal and pandemic influenza: an open cohort study of influenza outbreaks in Östergötland County, Sweden.

Timpka T, Eriksson O, Spreco A, Gursky EA, Strömgren M, Holm E, Ekberg J, Dahlström O, Valter L, Eriksson H - PLoS ONE (2012)

RIR diagrams for seasonal influenza outbreaks in Östergötland county 2006–2009.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3285651&req=5

pone-0031746-g003: RIR diagrams for seasonal influenza outbreaks in Östergötland county 2006–2009.
Mentions: RIR-curves comparing the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 to the mean for the four seasonal outbreaks are displayed in Figure 2. Larger proportion of influenza cases were attributed to the ages 10–19 (p<0.001) and 20–29 years old (p<0.01) during the A pH1N1 outbreak than during the seasonal outbreaks, while the proportion of cases observed in the age groups 0–9 years (p<0.05), 50–59 years (p<0.05), and 60–69 years (p<0.01) were larger during the seasonal outbreaks. Corresponding curves for each seasonal outbreak are displayed in Figure 3. It is noteworthy that higher- than- expected proportions of cases were distributed to the middle-aged groups (30–39 and 40–49 years) during all seasonal outbreaks except the A H3 and A H1N1 outbreak in 2006.

Bottom Line: The proportion of cases from the age groups 10-19 (p<0.001) and 20-29 years old (p<0.01) were found to be larger during the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 than during the seasonal outbreaks.An interaction between age and outbreak was observed (p<0.001) indicating a difference in age effects between circulating virus types; this interaction persisted for seasonal outbreaks only (p<0.001).Disentangling these effects on the causal pathways will require an integrated information infrastructure for data collection and repeated studies of well-defined communities.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health, Östergötland County Council, Linköping, Sweden. toomas.timpka@liu.se

ABSTRACT
An understanding of the occurrence and comparative timing of influenza infections in different age groups is important for developing community response and disease control measures. This study uses data from a Scandinavian county (population 427.000) to investigate whether age was a determinant for being diagnosed with influenza 2005-2010 and to examine if age was associated with case timing during outbreaks. Aggregated demographic data were collected from Statistics Sweden, while influenza case data were collected from a county-wide electronic health record system. A logistic regression analysis was used to explore whether case risk was associated with age and outbreak. An analysis of variance was used to explore whether day for diagnosis was also associated to age and outbreak. The clinical case data were validated against case data from microbiological laboratories during one control year. The proportion of cases from the age groups 10-19 (p<0.001) and 20-29 years old (p<0.01) were found to be larger during the A pH1N1 outbreak in 2009 than during the seasonal outbreaks. An interaction between age and outbreak was observed (p<0.001) indicating a difference in age effects between circulating virus types; this interaction persisted for seasonal outbreaks only (p<0.001). The outbreaks also differed regarding when the age groups received their diagnosis (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis showed a tendency for the young age groups, in particular the group 10-19 year olds, led outbreaks with influenza type A H1 circulating, while A H3N2 outbreaks displayed little variations in timing. The validation analysis showed a strong correlation (r = 0.625;p<0.001) between the recorded numbers of clinically and microbiologically defined influenza cases. Our findings demonstrate the complexity of age effects underlying the emergence of local influenza outbreaks. Disentangling these effects on the causal pathways will require an integrated information infrastructure for data collection and repeated studies of well-defined communities.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus