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Attenuating effect of vigorous physical activity on the risk for inherited obesity: a study of 47,691 runners.

Williams PT - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: BMI and waist circumferences of runners who ran <3 km/day were significantly related to their parents adiposity (P<10(-15) and P<10(-11), respectively).These results could not be attributed to self-selection.The results are consistent with other research suggesting the physical activity dose required to prevent unhealthy weight gain is greater than that recommended for other health benefits.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Donner Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States of America. ptwilliams@lbl.gov

ABSTRACT

Objective: Physical activity has been shown to attenuate the effect of the FTO polymorphism on body weight, and the heritability of body weight in twin and in family studies. The dose-response relationship between activity and the risk for inherited obesity is not well known, particularly for higher doses of vigorous exercise. Such information is needed to best prescribe an exercise dose for obesity prevention in those at risk due to their family history.

Design: We therefore analyzed self-reported usual running distance, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and mother's and father's adiposity (1 = lean, 2 = normal, 3 = overweight, and 4 = very overweight) from survey data collected on 33,480 male and 14,211 female runners. Age-, education-, and alcohol-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate the contribution of parental adiposities to the BMI and waist circumferences in runners who ran an average of <3, 3-6, 6-9, ≥ 9 km/day.

Results: BMI and waist circumferences of runners who ran <3 km/day were significantly related to their parents adiposity (P<10(-15) and P<10(-11), respectively). These relationships (i.e., kg/m(2) or cm per increment in parental adiposity) diminished significantly with increasing running distance for both BMI (inheritance×exercise interaction, males: P<10(-10); females: P<10(-5)) and waist circumference (inheritance × exercise interaction, males: P<10(-9); females: P = 0.004). Compared to <3 km/day, the parental contribution to runners who averaged ≥ 9 km/day was diminished by 48% for male BMI, 58% for female BMI, 55% for male waist circumference, and 58% for female waist circumference. These results could not be attributed to self-selection.

Conclusions: Exceeding the minimum exercise dose currently recommended for general health benefits (energy equivalent to running 2-3 km/day) may substantially diminish the risk for inherited obesity. The results are consistent with other research suggesting the physical activity dose required to prevent unhealthy weight gain is greater than that recommended for other health benefits.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of parental adiposity on runners' pre-exercise BMI, waist circumference, and chest circumference, showing no significant association with exercise.The inheritance x exercise interaction tests whether the parent-offspring relationships differed by the offsprings' running distance. Parental adiposity was strongly related to pre-exercise BMI in male runners (P<10−15 all categories) and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15), 3–6 and (P<10−15), 6–9 (P<10−11), and >9 km/day (P<10−7), pre-exercise waist circumference in male and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15 and P<10−9, respectively), 3–6 (P<10−15 and P<10−10, respectively), 6–9 (P<10−13 and P<0.0001, respectively), and ≥9 km/day (P<10−15 and P = 0.006, respectively), and pre-exercise chest circumference in male and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15 and P = 0.0003, respectively), 3–6 (P<10−15 and P<10−6, respectively), 6–9 (P<10−6 and P = 0.03, respectively), and ≥9 km/day (P<10−12 and P<10−4, respectively). The analyses are restricted to the 96.7% of men and 94.3% of women who provided a weight for when they had first started running 12 or more miles per week.
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pone-0031436-g002: Effect of parental adiposity on runners' pre-exercise BMI, waist circumference, and chest circumference, showing no significant association with exercise.The inheritance x exercise interaction tests whether the parent-offspring relationships differed by the offsprings' running distance. Parental adiposity was strongly related to pre-exercise BMI in male runners (P<10−15 all categories) and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15), 3–6 and (P<10−15), 6–9 (P<10−11), and >9 km/day (P<10−7), pre-exercise waist circumference in male and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15 and P<10−9, respectively), 3–6 (P<10−15 and P<10−10, respectively), 6–9 (P<10−13 and P<0.0001, respectively), and ≥9 km/day (P<10−15 and P = 0.006, respectively), and pre-exercise chest circumference in male and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15 and P = 0.0003, respectively), 3–6 (P<10−15 and P<10−6, respectively), 6–9 (P<10−6 and P = 0.03, respectively), and ≥9 km/day (P<10−12 and P<10−4, respectively). The analyses are restricted to the 96.7% of men and 94.3% of women who provided a weight for when they had first started running 12 or more miles per week.

Mentions: To test whether self-selection explained the weaker parental contribution to high-mileage runners, the analyses of Figure 1 were repeated using the participants' recalled age and weight, waist circumference, and chest circumference when they first started running 12 or more miles per week (pre-exercise BMI, pre-exercise waist, and pre-exercise chest circumference). The analyses, Figure 2, necessarily exclude 3.3% of men and 5.7% of women who did not provide these data, presumably because they had never run at least 12 miles per week. In contrast to the highly significant interaction terms of Figure 1, current running distance was not significantly related to the effect of parental adiposity on the runners' pre-exercise BMI (male: P = 0.59, female: P = 0.35), pre-exercise waist circumference (male: P = 0.97, female: P = 0.09), or pre-exercise chest circumference (male: P = 0.61, female: P = 0.68). Parental adiposity was significantly related to pre-exercise BMI and waist and chest circumferences within each distance category, however.


Attenuating effect of vigorous physical activity on the risk for inherited obesity: a study of 47,691 runners.

Williams PT - PLoS ONE (2012)

Effect of parental adiposity on runners' pre-exercise BMI, waist circumference, and chest circumference, showing no significant association with exercise.The inheritance x exercise interaction tests whether the parent-offspring relationships differed by the offsprings' running distance. Parental adiposity was strongly related to pre-exercise BMI in male runners (P<10−15 all categories) and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15), 3–6 and (P<10−15), 6–9 (P<10−11), and >9 km/day (P<10−7), pre-exercise waist circumference in male and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15 and P<10−9, respectively), 3–6 (P<10−15 and P<10−10, respectively), 6–9 (P<10−13 and P<0.0001, respectively), and ≥9 km/day (P<10−15 and P = 0.006, respectively), and pre-exercise chest circumference in male and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15 and P = 0.0003, respectively), 3–6 (P<10−15 and P<10−6, respectively), 6–9 (P<10−6 and P = 0.03, respectively), and ≥9 km/day (P<10−12 and P<10−4, respectively). The analyses are restricted to the 96.7% of men and 94.3% of women who provided a weight for when they had first started running 12 or more miles per week.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3285646&req=5

pone-0031436-g002: Effect of parental adiposity on runners' pre-exercise BMI, waist circumference, and chest circumference, showing no significant association with exercise.The inheritance x exercise interaction tests whether the parent-offspring relationships differed by the offsprings' running distance. Parental adiposity was strongly related to pre-exercise BMI in male runners (P<10−15 all categories) and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15), 3–6 and (P<10−15), 6–9 (P<10−11), and >9 km/day (P<10−7), pre-exercise waist circumference in male and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15 and P<10−9, respectively), 3–6 (P<10−15 and P<10−10, respectively), 6–9 (P<10−13 and P<0.0001, respectively), and ≥9 km/day (P<10−15 and P = 0.006, respectively), and pre-exercise chest circumference in male and female runners who currently ran <3 (P<10−15 and P = 0.0003, respectively), 3–6 (P<10−15 and P<10−6, respectively), 6–9 (P<10−6 and P = 0.03, respectively), and ≥9 km/day (P<10−12 and P<10−4, respectively). The analyses are restricted to the 96.7% of men and 94.3% of women who provided a weight for when they had first started running 12 or more miles per week.
Mentions: To test whether self-selection explained the weaker parental contribution to high-mileage runners, the analyses of Figure 1 were repeated using the participants' recalled age and weight, waist circumference, and chest circumference when they first started running 12 or more miles per week (pre-exercise BMI, pre-exercise waist, and pre-exercise chest circumference). The analyses, Figure 2, necessarily exclude 3.3% of men and 5.7% of women who did not provide these data, presumably because they had never run at least 12 miles per week. In contrast to the highly significant interaction terms of Figure 1, current running distance was not significantly related to the effect of parental adiposity on the runners' pre-exercise BMI (male: P = 0.59, female: P = 0.35), pre-exercise waist circumference (male: P = 0.97, female: P = 0.09), or pre-exercise chest circumference (male: P = 0.61, female: P = 0.68). Parental adiposity was significantly related to pre-exercise BMI and waist and chest circumferences within each distance category, however.

Bottom Line: BMI and waist circumferences of runners who ran <3 km/day were significantly related to their parents adiposity (P<10(-15) and P<10(-11), respectively).These results could not be attributed to self-selection.The results are consistent with other research suggesting the physical activity dose required to prevent unhealthy weight gain is greater than that recommended for other health benefits.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Donner Laboratory, Berkeley, California, United States of America. ptwilliams@lbl.gov

ABSTRACT

Objective: Physical activity has been shown to attenuate the effect of the FTO polymorphism on body weight, and the heritability of body weight in twin and in family studies. The dose-response relationship between activity and the risk for inherited obesity is not well known, particularly for higher doses of vigorous exercise. Such information is needed to best prescribe an exercise dose for obesity prevention in those at risk due to their family history.

Design: We therefore analyzed self-reported usual running distance, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and mother's and father's adiposity (1 = lean, 2 = normal, 3 = overweight, and 4 = very overweight) from survey data collected on 33,480 male and 14,211 female runners. Age-, education-, and alcohol-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate the contribution of parental adiposities to the BMI and waist circumferences in runners who ran an average of <3, 3-6, 6-9, ≥ 9 km/day.

Results: BMI and waist circumferences of runners who ran <3 km/day were significantly related to their parents adiposity (P<10(-15) and P<10(-11), respectively). These relationships (i.e., kg/m(2) or cm per increment in parental adiposity) diminished significantly with increasing running distance for both BMI (inheritance×exercise interaction, males: P<10(-10); females: P<10(-5)) and waist circumference (inheritance × exercise interaction, males: P<10(-9); females: P = 0.004). Compared to <3 km/day, the parental contribution to runners who averaged ≥ 9 km/day was diminished by 48% for male BMI, 58% for female BMI, 55% for male waist circumference, and 58% for female waist circumference. These results could not be attributed to self-selection.

Conclusions: Exceeding the minimum exercise dose currently recommended for general health benefits (energy equivalent to running 2-3 km/day) may substantially diminish the risk for inherited obesity. The results are consistent with other research suggesting the physical activity dose required to prevent unhealthy weight gain is greater than that recommended for other health benefits.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus