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The gut microbiome: scourge, sentinel or spectator?

Korecka A, Arulampalam V - J Oral Microbiol (2012)

Bottom Line: This long-established commensalism indicates that these microbes are an integral part of the eukaryotic host.Recent research findings have implicated the dynamics of microbial function in setting thresholds for many physiological parameters.A cautiously optimistic idea is taking hold, invoking the gut microbiota as a medium to track, target and treat a plethora of diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The gut microbiota consists of trillions of prokaryotes that reside in the intestinal mucosa. This long-established commensalism indicates that these microbes are an integral part of the eukaryotic host. Recent research findings have implicated the dynamics of microbial function in setting thresholds for many physiological parameters. Conversely, it has been convincingly argued that dysbiosis, representing microbial imbalance, may be an important underlying factor that contributes to a variety of diseases, inside and outside the gut. This review discusses the latest findings, including enterotype classification, changes brought on by dysbiosis, gut inflammation, and metabolic mediators in an attempt to underscore the importance of the gut microbiota for human health. A cautiously optimistic idea is taking hold, invoking the gut microbiota as a medium to track, target and treat a plethora of diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A schematic representation of the lower intestinal tract showing common bacteria found in various parts of the GI tract and bacterial abundance in cfu/ml. Main intestinal functions and pH values found along the GI tract are also shown.(cfu – colony forming unit).
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Figure 0001: A schematic representation of the lower intestinal tract showing common bacteria found in various parts of the GI tract and bacterial abundance in cfu/ml. Main intestinal functions and pH values found along the GI tract are also shown.(cfu – colony forming unit).

Mentions: Within this category of close friends is the multitude of bacteria that live in our gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In humans, the GI tract (a.k.a. the gut) becomes rapidly colonized upon birth, as do other parts of the body. Microbial presence in the GI tract has been much studied not least because the mucosal surface of the human gut affords more than 100 m2 of inhabitable space. The gut microbial community is one of the most densely populated, and the abundance and identities of bacterial species living in the GI tract are now being charted after being pursued for decades (Fig. 1) (2). The Human Microbiome Project has already highlighted the identification of approximately 30% of the known human gut microflora. A close second at roughly 26% is the resident microflora in the oral cavity (3). All in all, humans harbor trillions of bacteria living in tolerant symbiosis. These bacteria, collectively known as microbiota, contribute to an array of host physiological processes. The constituents of the microbiota, ranging from bacterial genes to proteins and metabolites, are collectively referred to as the microbiome. We, humans, are effectively superorganisms, in part governed by our resident microbiota. Symbiosis, commensalism, and mutualism prevail in this host–microbe intercourse, and discordance in this marriage is frequently detrimental to the host.


The gut microbiome: scourge, sentinel or spectator?

Korecka A, Arulampalam V - J Oral Microbiol (2012)

A schematic representation of the lower intestinal tract showing common bacteria found in various parts of the GI tract and bacterial abundance in cfu/ml. Main intestinal functions and pH values found along the GI tract are also shown.(cfu – colony forming unit).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3285216&req=5

Figure 0001: A schematic representation of the lower intestinal tract showing common bacteria found in various parts of the GI tract and bacterial abundance in cfu/ml. Main intestinal functions and pH values found along the GI tract are also shown.(cfu – colony forming unit).
Mentions: Within this category of close friends is the multitude of bacteria that live in our gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In humans, the GI tract (a.k.a. the gut) becomes rapidly colonized upon birth, as do other parts of the body. Microbial presence in the GI tract has been much studied not least because the mucosal surface of the human gut affords more than 100 m2 of inhabitable space. The gut microbial community is one of the most densely populated, and the abundance and identities of bacterial species living in the GI tract are now being charted after being pursued for decades (Fig. 1) (2). The Human Microbiome Project has already highlighted the identification of approximately 30% of the known human gut microflora. A close second at roughly 26% is the resident microflora in the oral cavity (3). All in all, humans harbor trillions of bacteria living in tolerant symbiosis. These bacteria, collectively known as microbiota, contribute to an array of host physiological processes. The constituents of the microbiota, ranging from bacterial genes to proteins and metabolites, are collectively referred to as the microbiome. We, humans, are effectively superorganisms, in part governed by our resident microbiota. Symbiosis, commensalism, and mutualism prevail in this host–microbe intercourse, and discordance in this marriage is frequently detrimental to the host.

Bottom Line: This long-established commensalism indicates that these microbes are an integral part of the eukaryotic host.Recent research findings have implicated the dynamics of microbial function in setting thresholds for many physiological parameters.A cautiously optimistic idea is taking hold, invoking the gut microbiota as a medium to track, target and treat a plethora of diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The gut microbiota consists of trillions of prokaryotes that reside in the intestinal mucosa. This long-established commensalism indicates that these microbes are an integral part of the eukaryotic host. Recent research findings have implicated the dynamics of microbial function in setting thresholds for many physiological parameters. Conversely, it has been convincingly argued that dysbiosis, representing microbial imbalance, may be an important underlying factor that contributes to a variety of diseases, inside and outside the gut. This review discusses the latest findings, including enterotype classification, changes brought on by dysbiosis, gut inflammation, and metabolic mediators in an attempt to underscore the importance of the gut microbiota for human health. A cautiously optimistic idea is taking hold, invoking the gut microbiota as a medium to track, target and treat a plethora of diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus