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Change in physical activity and weight in relation to retirement: the French GAZEL Cohort Study.

Sjösten N, Kivimäki M, Singh-Manoux A, Ferrie JE, Goldberg M, Zins M, Pentti J, Westerlund H, Vahtera J - BMJ Open (2012)

Bottom Line: Prospective.Weight gain preretirement to postretirement was 0.85 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.21) to 1.35 (0.79 to 1.90) kg greater among physically inactive persons (decrease in activity or inactive) compared with those physically active (p<0.001).Retirement transition may be associated with beneficial changes in lifestyle and may thus be a good starting point to preventive interventions in various groups of individuals in order to maintain long-term changes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To examine the trajectories of physical activity from preretirement to postretirement and to further clarify whether the changes in physical activity are associated with changes in body weight.

Design: Prospective.

Setting: French national gas and electricity company (GAZEL cohort).

Participants: From the original sample of 20 625 employees, only those retiring between 2001 and 2008 on a statutory basis were selected for the analyses (analysis 1: n=2711, 63% men; analysis 2: n=3812, 75% men). Persons with data on at least one preretirement and postretirement measurement of the outcome were selected.

Primary and secondary outcome measures: All outcome data were gathered by questionnaires. In analysis 1, the annual prevalence of higher physical activity (walking ≥5 km/week) 4 years before and after retirement was analysed. In analysis 2, changes in leisure-time sport activities (engagement, frequency and manner) from preretirement to postretirement were analysed with simultaneous changes in body weight (kilogram).

Results: In analysis 1 (n=2711), prevalence estimates for 4 years before and 4 years after retirement showed that higher leisure-time physical activity (walking at least 5 km/week) increased by 36% in men and 61% in women during the transition to retirement. This increase was also observed among people at a higher risk of physical inactivity, such as smokers and those with elevated depressive symptoms. In a separate sample (analysis 2, n=3812), change in weight as a function of preretirement and postretirement physical activity was analysed. Weight gain preretirement to postretirement was 0.85 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.21) to 1.35 (0.79 to 1.90) kg greater among physically inactive persons (decrease in activity or inactive) compared with those physically active (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Retirement transition may be associated with beneficial changes in lifestyle and may thus be a good starting point to preventive interventions in various groups of individuals in order to maintain long-term changes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Proportion of men and women walking at least 5 km/week in relation to the year of retirement (year 0) among Eléctricité de France-Gaz de France (EDF-GDF) employees, France, 2002–2009. Adjusted for age.
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fig1: Proportion of men and women walking at least 5 km/week in relation to the year of retirement (year 0) among Eléctricité de France-Gaz de France (EDF-GDF) employees, France, 2002–2009. Adjusted for age.

Mentions: Figure 1 shows the age-adjusted prevalence estimates (95% CIs) for higher physical activity (ie, walking ≥5 km/week) within the 9-year time window. Before retirement, the annual prevalence of men and women walking at least 5 km/week was around 40%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of physical activity between the preretirement, periretirement and postretirement periods in both men and women (p value for interaction time × period <0.001 in both sexes) (tables 2 and 3). The proportion of men walking at least 5 km increased by 36% during period 2. A lesser, 18%, increase was noticed during period 1 and a non-significant, 8%, decrease in period 3. In women, the sharpest increase (61%) in physical activity also occurred during the retirement transition, in contrast to 14%−19% decreases in physical activity during the preretirement and postretirement phases. Importantly, a similar pattern of significant increases in physical activity, especially during period 2, was noticed across all subgroups. Of the covariates, only depression significantly shaped the physical activity trajectory pattern among male respondents. Interestingly, during period 2, the likelihood of higher physical activity increased more in men with elevated depressive symptoms compared with men with lower levels of depressive symptoms (PR 2.17, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.24 vs PR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.44, p value (two sided) for interaction covariate × time × period <0.05).


Change in physical activity and weight in relation to retirement: the French GAZEL Cohort Study.

Sjösten N, Kivimäki M, Singh-Manoux A, Ferrie JE, Goldberg M, Zins M, Pentti J, Westerlund H, Vahtera J - BMJ Open (2012)

Proportion of men and women walking at least 5 km/week in relation to the year of retirement (year 0) among Eléctricité de France-Gaz de France (EDF-GDF) employees, France, 2002–2009. Adjusted for age.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3277904&req=5

fig1: Proportion of men and women walking at least 5 km/week in relation to the year of retirement (year 0) among Eléctricité de France-Gaz de France (EDF-GDF) employees, France, 2002–2009. Adjusted for age.
Mentions: Figure 1 shows the age-adjusted prevalence estimates (95% CIs) for higher physical activity (ie, walking ≥5 km/week) within the 9-year time window. Before retirement, the annual prevalence of men and women walking at least 5 km/week was around 40%. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of physical activity between the preretirement, periretirement and postretirement periods in both men and women (p value for interaction time × period <0.001 in both sexes) (tables 2 and 3). The proportion of men walking at least 5 km increased by 36% during period 2. A lesser, 18%, increase was noticed during period 1 and a non-significant, 8%, decrease in period 3. In women, the sharpest increase (61%) in physical activity also occurred during the retirement transition, in contrast to 14%−19% decreases in physical activity during the preretirement and postretirement phases. Importantly, a similar pattern of significant increases in physical activity, especially during period 2, was noticed across all subgroups. Of the covariates, only depression significantly shaped the physical activity trajectory pattern among male respondents. Interestingly, during period 2, the likelihood of higher physical activity increased more in men with elevated depressive symptoms compared with men with lower levels of depressive symptoms (PR 2.17, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.24 vs PR 1.32, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.44, p value (two sided) for interaction covariate × time × period <0.05).

Bottom Line: Prospective.Weight gain preretirement to postretirement was 0.85 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.21) to 1.35 (0.79 to 1.90) kg greater among physically inactive persons (decrease in activity or inactive) compared with those physically active (p<0.001).Retirement transition may be associated with beneficial changes in lifestyle and may thus be a good starting point to preventive interventions in various groups of individuals in order to maintain long-term changes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Turku, Finland.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To examine the trajectories of physical activity from preretirement to postretirement and to further clarify whether the changes in physical activity are associated with changes in body weight.

Design: Prospective.

Setting: French national gas and electricity company (GAZEL cohort).

Participants: From the original sample of 20 625 employees, only those retiring between 2001 and 2008 on a statutory basis were selected for the analyses (analysis 1: n=2711, 63% men; analysis 2: n=3812, 75% men). Persons with data on at least one preretirement and postretirement measurement of the outcome were selected.

Primary and secondary outcome measures: All outcome data were gathered by questionnaires. In analysis 1, the annual prevalence of higher physical activity (walking ≥5 km/week) 4 years before and after retirement was analysed. In analysis 2, changes in leisure-time sport activities (engagement, frequency and manner) from preretirement to postretirement were analysed with simultaneous changes in body weight (kilogram).

Results: In analysis 1 (n=2711), prevalence estimates for 4 years before and 4 years after retirement showed that higher leisure-time physical activity (walking at least 5 km/week) increased by 36% in men and 61% in women during the transition to retirement. This increase was also observed among people at a higher risk of physical inactivity, such as smokers and those with elevated depressive symptoms. In a separate sample (analysis 2, n=3812), change in weight as a function of preretirement and postretirement physical activity was analysed. Weight gain preretirement to postretirement was 0.85 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.21) to 1.35 (0.79 to 1.90) kg greater among physically inactive persons (decrease in activity or inactive) compared with those physically active (p<0.001).

Conclusions: Retirement transition may be associated with beneficial changes in lifestyle and may thus be a good starting point to preventive interventions in various groups of individuals in order to maintain long-term changes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus