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Apoptotic cell clearance in chronic inflammation of lateral neck cysts.

Dobros W, Burda K, Guzik K, Koziel J, Potempa J - Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol (2011)

Bottom Line: Simultaneously, the expression of cytokines in macrophages exposed to cyst contents was measured.Macrophages co-cultured with cyst contents responded with variable expression of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10.Together with local production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, this may fuel chronic inflammation in the cysts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otolaryngology, Regional Hospital, ul. Lwowska 178A, 33-100, Tarnow, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The mechanism driving accumulation of large numbers of apoptotic and necrotic neutrophils in inflamed lateral neck cysts (LNC), in the absence of infection, remains obscure. The cellular content of cysts obtained from 17 patients was co-cultured with human macrophages. Phagocytosis levels of cyst-derived neutrophils were determined and compared to the uptake of spontaneously apoptotic neutrophils. Simultaneously, the expression of cytokines in macrophages exposed to cyst contents was measured. In comparison to spontaneously apoptotic neutrophils, the phagocytosis of LNC-derived neutrophils by macrophages was inefficient. An inverse correlation between neutrophil content in LNC and their uptake was observed. Macrophages co-cultured with cyst contents responded with variable expression of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. The hindered clearance of apoptotic neutrophils in LNC may lead to secondary necrosis of these cells and stimulation of the inflammatory reaction. Together with local production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, this may fuel chronic inflammation in the cysts.

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Determination of cytokine mRNA by PCR in macrophages stimulated by LNC content. C control cells, LPS macrophages stimulated with LPS (1 ng/ml), 1–17 macrophages stimulated with the LNC content aspired from patients numbered from 1 to 17
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Fig2: Determination of cytokine mRNA by PCR in macrophages stimulated by LNC content. C control cells, LPS macrophages stimulated with LPS (1 ng/ml), 1–17 macrophages stimulated with the LNC content aspired from patients numbered from 1 to 17

Mentions: The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is crucial for maintaining homeostasis in tissues, and has a strong effect on the immunological system. Upon uptake of apoptotic cells, macrophages are directed toward anti-inflammatory responses manifested by changes in the profile of produced cytokines [11]. Therefore, we have investigated the effect of macrophage exposure to LNC cellular content on the expression of pro- (IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflamatory (IL-10) cytokines. As a control, bacterial endotoxin (LPS from E. coli) was used as a factor to strongly stimulate a proinflammatory response (Fig. 2). In comparison to LPS, macrophage response to cyst contents was weaker, especially for IL-6 and TNF-α transcription. Also, there was a clear difference in response of hMDMs to stimulation with individual samples; for example, the IL-6 transcript was detected in all cases, but at different levels. The highest accumulation of IL-6 mRNA was observed in seven samples (1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 and 12) (Fig. 2a), while in contrast the expression of TNF-α was detected in macrophages treated with only six samples (3, 4, 5, 6, 13 and 16) (Fig. 2b). Finally, mRNA for IL-10 was detected in macrophages exposed to 12 out of 17 tested LNC specimens. Interestingly, for five of these samples (3, 4, 5, 6 and 17), the response was at a level equivalent to that induced by LPS (Fig. 2c). No correlation could be found between neutrophil content and their susceptibility to engulfment by macrophages, and cytokine response. The results presented reveal that only the fluid from individual cysts can induce variable expression of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 in macrophages, which may bias the immune response in LNCs toward development and maintenance of a chronic inflammatory reaction.Fig. 2


Apoptotic cell clearance in chronic inflammation of lateral neck cysts.

Dobros W, Burda K, Guzik K, Koziel J, Potempa J - Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol (2011)

Determination of cytokine mRNA by PCR in macrophages stimulated by LNC content. C control cells, LPS macrophages stimulated with LPS (1 ng/ml), 1–17 macrophages stimulated with the LNC content aspired from patients numbered from 1 to 17
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3275742&req=5

Fig2: Determination of cytokine mRNA by PCR in macrophages stimulated by LNC content. C control cells, LPS macrophages stimulated with LPS (1 ng/ml), 1–17 macrophages stimulated with the LNC content aspired from patients numbered from 1 to 17
Mentions: The phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is crucial for maintaining homeostasis in tissues, and has a strong effect on the immunological system. Upon uptake of apoptotic cells, macrophages are directed toward anti-inflammatory responses manifested by changes in the profile of produced cytokines [11]. Therefore, we have investigated the effect of macrophage exposure to LNC cellular content on the expression of pro- (IL-6 and TNF-α) and anti-inflamatory (IL-10) cytokines. As a control, bacterial endotoxin (LPS from E. coli) was used as a factor to strongly stimulate a proinflammatory response (Fig. 2). In comparison to LPS, macrophage response to cyst contents was weaker, especially for IL-6 and TNF-α transcription. Also, there was a clear difference in response of hMDMs to stimulation with individual samples; for example, the IL-6 transcript was detected in all cases, but at different levels. The highest accumulation of IL-6 mRNA was observed in seven samples (1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 11 and 12) (Fig. 2a), while in contrast the expression of TNF-α was detected in macrophages treated with only six samples (3, 4, 5, 6, 13 and 16) (Fig. 2b). Finally, mRNA for IL-10 was detected in macrophages exposed to 12 out of 17 tested LNC specimens. Interestingly, for five of these samples (3, 4, 5, 6 and 17), the response was at a level equivalent to that induced by LPS (Fig. 2c). No correlation could be found between neutrophil content and their susceptibility to engulfment by macrophages, and cytokine response. The results presented reveal that only the fluid from individual cysts can induce variable expression of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 in macrophages, which may bias the immune response in LNCs toward development and maintenance of a chronic inflammatory reaction.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Simultaneously, the expression of cytokines in macrophages exposed to cyst contents was measured.Macrophages co-cultured with cyst contents responded with variable expression of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10.Together with local production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, this may fuel chronic inflammation in the cysts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Otolaryngology, Regional Hospital, ul. Lwowska 178A, 33-100, Tarnow, Poland.

ABSTRACT
The mechanism driving accumulation of large numbers of apoptotic and necrotic neutrophils in inflamed lateral neck cysts (LNC), in the absence of infection, remains obscure. The cellular content of cysts obtained from 17 patients was co-cultured with human macrophages. Phagocytosis levels of cyst-derived neutrophils were determined and compared to the uptake of spontaneously apoptotic neutrophils. Simultaneously, the expression of cytokines in macrophages exposed to cyst contents was measured. In comparison to spontaneously apoptotic neutrophils, the phagocytosis of LNC-derived neutrophils by macrophages was inefficient. An inverse correlation between neutrophil content in LNC and their uptake was observed. Macrophages co-cultured with cyst contents responded with variable expression of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10. The hindered clearance of apoptotic neutrophils in LNC may lead to secondary necrosis of these cells and stimulation of the inflammatory reaction. Together with local production of anti-inflammatory cytokines, this may fuel chronic inflammation in the cysts.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus