Limits...
MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Lung, Liver and Kidney Diseases to Infectious Disease, Sickle Cell Disease and Endometrium Disease.

Ha TY - Immune Netw (2011)

Bottom Line: As a consequence of extensive participation of miRNAs in normal functions, alteration and/or abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases.Beside their important roles in patterning and development, miRNAs also orchestrated responses to pathogen infections.Here I briefly summarize the newly discovered roles of miRNAs in various human diseases including infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and enodmetrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 561-180, Korea.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring small non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Recent studies provided clear evidence that microRNAs are abundant in the lung, liver and kidney and modulate a diverse spectrum of their functions. Moreover, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and endometrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. As a consequence of extensive participation of miRNAs in normal functions, alteration and/or abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases. Beside their important roles in patterning and development, miRNAs also orchestrated responses to pathogen infections. Particularly, emerging evidence indicates that viruses use their own miRNAs to manipulate both cellular and viral gene expression. Furthermore, viral infection can exert a profound impact on the host cellular miRNA expression profile, and several RNA viruses have been reported to interact directly with cellular miRNAs and/or to use these miRNAs to augment their replication potential. Here I briefly summarize the newly discovered roles of miRNAs in various human diseases including infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and enodmetrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Possible functions of viral miRNAs. Many viruses have been found to encode miRNAs that regulate both viral and host mRNA. miRNAs encoded in the viral genome have the potential to reshape the cellular environment to maximize viral replication. miRNAs could contribute to the maintenance and/or establishment of viral latent infection by protecting infected cells from undergoing apoptosis. miRNAs probably interfere with the host immune response, including antigen presentation and the IFN system. Viral miRNAS can suppress host cell gene involved in antiviral immunity and can control cell growth. IFN-β production ("cytokine storm") can induce and/or modulate expression of numerous cellular miRNAs. Cellular miRNAs influence the replication of virus and antiviral activity may be mediated by IFN through cellular miRNAs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3275699&req=5

Figure 2: Possible functions of viral miRNAs. Many viruses have been found to encode miRNAs that regulate both viral and host mRNA. miRNAs encoded in the viral genome have the potential to reshape the cellular environment to maximize viral replication. miRNAs could contribute to the maintenance and/or establishment of viral latent infection by protecting infected cells from undergoing apoptosis. miRNAs probably interfere with the host immune response, including antigen presentation and the IFN system. Viral miRNAS can suppress host cell gene involved in antiviral immunity and can control cell growth. IFN-β production ("cytokine storm") can induce and/or modulate expression of numerous cellular miRNAs. Cellular miRNAs influence the replication of virus and antiviral activity may be mediated by IFN through cellular miRNAs.

Mentions: Increasing evidence supports that miRNAs also have important functions in viral replication and may be used by host cells to control viral infection (85). Expression of miRNAs has been reported for various groups of viruses including herpesviruses, small DNA viruses and retroviruses (85). The recent identification of target genes regulated by some of these viral miRNA suggests that they may function in the control of lytic and latent viral replication, in the limitation of antiviral responses, in the inhibition of apoptosis, and in the stimulation of cellular growth (85). Importantly, from the viral perspective, miRNAs encoded in the viral genome have the potential to reshape the cellular environment to maximize viral replication (24,87). In this context they have several potential advantages. Namely, they can specifically down-regulate host cell genes. They also occupy less than 200 nucleotides of the viral genome and are not antigenic (24). One can predict that viral miRNAs probably interfere with aspects of the host adaptive immune responses, including antigen presentation, or innate immune responses, and the interferon system as shown in Fig. 2 (24). It is increasingly clear that miRNAs of both viral and cellular origin can positively or negatively influence viral replication (86). Viral miRNAs can directly alter host physiology, including component of the immune system, and host miRNAs can directly alter the virus life cycle (86). Indeed, there is evidence that viral miRNAs can suppress host cell genes involved in antiviral immunity (47). For instance, a miRNA encoded in the genome of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), miR-LAT, inhibits apoptosis by targeting TGF-β and SMAD-3, two components of the TGF-β pathway (47). Thus, viral miRNAs can maintain latent infections by protecting infected cells from undergoing apoptosis. Viral miRNAs can also interfere with host antiviral responses by targeting viral genes (87). Taken together, viral miRNAs may contribute to the viral immune escape.


MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Lung, Liver and Kidney Diseases to Infectious Disease, Sickle Cell Disease and Endometrium Disease.

Ha TY - Immune Netw (2011)

Possible functions of viral miRNAs. Many viruses have been found to encode miRNAs that regulate both viral and host mRNA. miRNAs encoded in the viral genome have the potential to reshape the cellular environment to maximize viral replication. miRNAs could contribute to the maintenance and/or establishment of viral latent infection by protecting infected cells from undergoing apoptosis. miRNAs probably interfere with the host immune response, including antigen presentation and the IFN system. Viral miRNAS can suppress host cell gene involved in antiviral immunity and can control cell growth. IFN-β production ("cytokine storm") can induce and/or modulate expression of numerous cellular miRNAs. Cellular miRNAs influence the replication of virus and antiviral activity may be mediated by IFN through cellular miRNAs.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3275699&req=5

Figure 2: Possible functions of viral miRNAs. Many viruses have been found to encode miRNAs that regulate both viral and host mRNA. miRNAs encoded in the viral genome have the potential to reshape the cellular environment to maximize viral replication. miRNAs could contribute to the maintenance and/or establishment of viral latent infection by protecting infected cells from undergoing apoptosis. miRNAs probably interfere with the host immune response, including antigen presentation and the IFN system. Viral miRNAS can suppress host cell gene involved in antiviral immunity and can control cell growth. IFN-β production ("cytokine storm") can induce and/or modulate expression of numerous cellular miRNAs. Cellular miRNAs influence the replication of virus and antiviral activity may be mediated by IFN through cellular miRNAs.
Mentions: Increasing evidence supports that miRNAs also have important functions in viral replication and may be used by host cells to control viral infection (85). Expression of miRNAs has been reported for various groups of viruses including herpesviruses, small DNA viruses and retroviruses (85). The recent identification of target genes regulated by some of these viral miRNA suggests that they may function in the control of lytic and latent viral replication, in the limitation of antiviral responses, in the inhibition of apoptosis, and in the stimulation of cellular growth (85). Importantly, from the viral perspective, miRNAs encoded in the viral genome have the potential to reshape the cellular environment to maximize viral replication (24,87). In this context they have several potential advantages. Namely, they can specifically down-regulate host cell genes. They also occupy less than 200 nucleotides of the viral genome and are not antigenic (24). One can predict that viral miRNAs probably interfere with aspects of the host adaptive immune responses, including antigen presentation, or innate immune responses, and the interferon system as shown in Fig. 2 (24). It is increasingly clear that miRNAs of both viral and cellular origin can positively or negatively influence viral replication (86). Viral miRNAs can directly alter host physiology, including component of the immune system, and host miRNAs can directly alter the virus life cycle (86). Indeed, there is evidence that viral miRNAs can suppress host cell genes involved in antiviral immunity (47). For instance, a miRNA encoded in the genome of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), miR-LAT, inhibits apoptosis by targeting TGF-β and SMAD-3, two components of the TGF-β pathway (47). Thus, viral miRNAs can maintain latent infections by protecting infected cells from undergoing apoptosis. Viral miRNAs can also interfere with host antiviral responses by targeting viral genes (87). Taken together, viral miRNAs may contribute to the viral immune escape.

Bottom Line: As a consequence of extensive participation of miRNAs in normal functions, alteration and/or abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases.Beside their important roles in patterning and development, miRNAs also orchestrated responses to pathogen infections.Here I briefly summarize the newly discovered roles of miRNAs in various human diseases including infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and enodmetrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju 561-180, Korea.

ABSTRACT
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of naturally occurring small non-coding RNAs of about 22 nucleotides that have recently emerged as important regulators of gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Recent studies provided clear evidence that microRNAs are abundant in the lung, liver and kidney and modulate a diverse spectrum of their functions. Moreover, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and endometrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases. As a consequence of extensive participation of miRNAs in normal functions, alteration and/or abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases. Beside their important roles in patterning and development, miRNAs also orchestrated responses to pathogen infections. Particularly, emerging evidence indicates that viruses use their own miRNAs to manipulate both cellular and viral gene expression. Furthermore, viral infection can exert a profound impact on the host cellular miRNA expression profile, and several RNA viruses have been reported to interact directly with cellular miRNAs and/or to use these miRNAs to augment their replication potential. Here I briefly summarize the newly discovered roles of miRNAs in various human diseases including infectious diseases, sickle cell disease and enodmetrium diseases as well as lung, liver and kidney diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus