Limits...
Genetic and environmental contributions to weight, height, and BMI from birth to 19 years of age: an international study of over 12,000 twin pairs.

Dubois L, Ohm Kyvik K, Girard M, Tatone-Tokuda F, Pérusse D, Hjelmborg J, Skytthe A, Rasmussen F, Wright MJ, Lichtenstein P, Martin NG - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: For body height, the effect of the common environment remained significant for a longer period during early childhood (up through 12 years of age).Sex-limitation of genetic and shared environmental effects was observed.Common environmental factors exert their strongest and most independent influence specifically in pre-adolescent years and more significantly in girls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. lise.dubois@uottawa.ca

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the genetic and environmental influences on variances in weight, height, and BMI, from birth through 19 years of age, in boys and girls from three continents.

Design and settings: Cross-sectional twin study. Data obtained from a total of 23 twin birth-cohorts from four countries: Canada, Sweden, Denmark, and Australia. Participants were Monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) (same- and opposite-sex) twin pairs with data available for both height and weight at a given age, from birth through 19 years of age. Approximately 24,036 children were included in the analyses.

Results: Heritability for body weight, height, and BMI was low at birth (between 6.4 and 8.7% for boys, and between 4.8 and 7.9% for girls) but increased over time, accounting for close to half or more of the variance in body weight and BMI after 5 months of age in both sexes. Common environmental influences on all body measures were high at birth (between 74.1-85.9% in all measures for boys, and between 74.2 and 87.3% in all measures for girls) and markedly reduced over time. For body height, the effect of the common environment remained significant for a longer period during early childhood (up through 12 years of age). Sex-limitation of genetic and shared environmental effects was observed.

Conclusion: Genetics appear to play an increasingly important role in explaining the variation in weight, height, and BMI from early childhood to late adolescence, particularly in boys. Common environmental factors exert their strongest and most independent influence specifically in pre-adolescent years and more significantly in girls. These findings emphasize the need to target family and social environmental interventions in early childhood years, especially for females. As gene-environment correlation and interaction is likely, it is also necessary to identify the genetic variants that may predispose individuals to obesity.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Proportion of the variance in weight (kg), height (m), and BMI (kg/m2) explained by A-squared and C-squared (with 95% confidence interval), in boys and girls (combined), from birth through 19 years of age – ACE models assumed.
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pone-0030153-g004: Proportion of the variance in weight (kg), height (m), and BMI (kg/m2) explained by A-squared and C-squared (with 95% confidence interval), in boys and girls (combined), from birth through 19 years of age – ACE models assumed.

Mentions: The proportion of variance in weight, height, and BMI explained by additive genetic (a2), common environmental (c2), and unique environmental (e2) factors, according to full ACE and nested AE sex-limitation models from birth through 19 years of age, is presented for boys and girls in Tables 1 and 2, respectively; best fitting and most parsimonious models are displayed in bold in the tables. No sex-limitation was observed in either body weight or height at 4 and 7 years of age, nor in BMI at 9 years of age (data not shown); however, as significant sex-limitation was observed in all variables at every other age, all modeling results are presented in sex-limited form for consistency in Tables 1 and 2. The proportion of the phenotypic variance in weight, height and BMI explained by a2 and c2 according to the full ACE non-sex-limited model (with 95% confidence intervals), from birth through 19 years, are presented in Figure 4.


Genetic and environmental contributions to weight, height, and BMI from birth to 19 years of age: an international study of over 12,000 twin pairs.

Dubois L, Ohm Kyvik K, Girard M, Tatone-Tokuda F, Pérusse D, Hjelmborg J, Skytthe A, Rasmussen F, Wright MJ, Lichtenstein P, Martin NG - PLoS ONE (2012)

Proportion of the variance in weight (kg), height (m), and BMI (kg/m2) explained by A-squared and C-squared (with 95% confidence interval), in boys and girls (combined), from birth through 19 years of age – ACE models assumed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3275599&req=5

pone-0030153-g004: Proportion of the variance in weight (kg), height (m), and BMI (kg/m2) explained by A-squared and C-squared (with 95% confidence interval), in boys and girls (combined), from birth through 19 years of age – ACE models assumed.
Mentions: The proportion of variance in weight, height, and BMI explained by additive genetic (a2), common environmental (c2), and unique environmental (e2) factors, according to full ACE and nested AE sex-limitation models from birth through 19 years of age, is presented for boys and girls in Tables 1 and 2, respectively; best fitting and most parsimonious models are displayed in bold in the tables. No sex-limitation was observed in either body weight or height at 4 and 7 years of age, nor in BMI at 9 years of age (data not shown); however, as significant sex-limitation was observed in all variables at every other age, all modeling results are presented in sex-limited form for consistency in Tables 1 and 2. The proportion of the phenotypic variance in weight, height and BMI explained by a2 and c2 according to the full ACE non-sex-limited model (with 95% confidence intervals), from birth through 19 years, are presented in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: For body height, the effect of the common environment remained significant for a longer period during early childhood (up through 12 years of age).Sex-limitation of genetic and shared environmental effects was observed.Common environmental factors exert their strongest and most independent influence specifically in pre-adolescent years and more significantly in girls.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Population Health, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. lise.dubois@uottawa.ca

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the genetic and environmental influences on variances in weight, height, and BMI, from birth through 19 years of age, in boys and girls from three continents.

Design and settings: Cross-sectional twin study. Data obtained from a total of 23 twin birth-cohorts from four countries: Canada, Sweden, Denmark, and Australia. Participants were Monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) (same- and opposite-sex) twin pairs with data available for both height and weight at a given age, from birth through 19 years of age. Approximately 24,036 children were included in the analyses.

Results: Heritability for body weight, height, and BMI was low at birth (between 6.4 and 8.7% for boys, and between 4.8 and 7.9% for girls) but increased over time, accounting for close to half or more of the variance in body weight and BMI after 5 months of age in both sexes. Common environmental influences on all body measures were high at birth (between 74.1-85.9% in all measures for boys, and between 74.2 and 87.3% in all measures for girls) and markedly reduced over time. For body height, the effect of the common environment remained significant for a longer period during early childhood (up through 12 years of age). Sex-limitation of genetic and shared environmental effects was observed.

Conclusion: Genetics appear to play an increasingly important role in explaining the variation in weight, height, and BMI from early childhood to late adolescence, particularly in boys. Common environmental factors exert their strongest and most independent influence specifically in pre-adolescent years and more significantly in girls. These findings emphasize the need to target family and social environmental interventions in early childhood years, especially for females. As gene-environment correlation and interaction is likely, it is also necessary to identify the genetic variants that may predispose individuals to obesity.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus