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Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.

Liger-Belair G, Bourget M, Pron H, Polidori G, Cilindre C - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: The concentration of gaseous CO(2) was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe.Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2) visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency.Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2) escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Equipe Effervescence, Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique, UMR CNRS 7331, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, BP 1039 Reims, France. gerard.liger-belair@univ-reims.fr

ABSTRACT
In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2) and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2) and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (μGC), all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2) was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2) visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2) found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2) escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Infrared imaging of gaseous CO2 desorbing when pouring champagne into both glass types.Gray scale time-sequences illustrating the pouring step as seen through the objective of the IR video camera – for a bottle stored at 20°C – whether champagne is served into the flute (a) or into the coupe (b).
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pone-0030628-g003: Infrared imaging of gaseous CO2 desorbing when pouring champagne into both glass types.Gray scale time-sequences illustrating the pouring step as seen through the objective of the IR video camera – for a bottle stored at 20°C – whether champagne is served into the flute (a) or into the coupe (b).

Mentions: As recently shown in a previous article, the pouring process is far from being inconsequential with regard to the concentration of CO2 dissolved into the wine [41]. During the several seconds of the pouring process, champagne undergoes highly turbulent and swirling flows. During this phase, champagne loses a very significant part of its initial content in dissolved CO2. Gray scale infrared thermography time-sequences displayed in Figure 3 illustrate the progressive losses of dissolved CO2 desorbing from the liquid phase into the form of a cloud of gaseous CO2, whether champagne is poured in a flute or in a coupe. Clouds of gaseous CO2 escaping from the liquid phase clearly appear. Consequently, at the beginning of the time series (i.e., at t = 0, after the glass was poured with champagne and manually placed below the sampling valve of the chromatograph), champagne holds a level of dissolved CO2 well below g L−1 (as chemically measured inside a bottle, after uncorking, but before pouring). In the present work, the initial bulk concentration of dissolved CO2 after pouring, denoted , was also chemically accessed by using carbonic anhydrase. To enable a statistical treatment, six successive CO2-dissolved measurements were systematically done for each type of drinking vessel, after six successive pouring (from six distinct bottles). When served at 20°C, champagne was found to initially hold (at t = 0, after pouring) a concentration of CO2-dissolved molecules of g L−1 in the flute, and g L−1 in the coupe (i.e., approximately 4 g L−1 less in both types of drinking vessel after pouring than inside the bottle, before pouring).


Monitoring gaseous CO2 and ethanol above champagne glasses: flute versus coupe, and the role of temperature.

Liger-Belair G, Bourget M, Pron H, Polidori G, Cilindre C - PLoS ONE (2012)

Infrared imaging of gaseous CO2 desorbing when pouring champagne into both glass types.Gray scale time-sequences illustrating the pouring step as seen through the objective of the IR video camera – for a bottle stored at 20°C – whether champagne is served into the flute (a) or into the coupe (b).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3275598&req=5

pone-0030628-g003: Infrared imaging of gaseous CO2 desorbing when pouring champagne into both glass types.Gray scale time-sequences illustrating the pouring step as seen through the objective of the IR video camera – for a bottle stored at 20°C – whether champagne is served into the flute (a) or into the coupe (b).
Mentions: As recently shown in a previous article, the pouring process is far from being inconsequential with regard to the concentration of CO2 dissolved into the wine [41]. During the several seconds of the pouring process, champagne undergoes highly turbulent and swirling flows. During this phase, champagne loses a very significant part of its initial content in dissolved CO2. Gray scale infrared thermography time-sequences displayed in Figure 3 illustrate the progressive losses of dissolved CO2 desorbing from the liquid phase into the form of a cloud of gaseous CO2, whether champagne is poured in a flute or in a coupe. Clouds of gaseous CO2 escaping from the liquid phase clearly appear. Consequently, at the beginning of the time series (i.e., at t = 0, after the glass was poured with champagne and manually placed below the sampling valve of the chromatograph), champagne holds a level of dissolved CO2 well below g L−1 (as chemically measured inside a bottle, after uncorking, but before pouring). In the present work, the initial bulk concentration of dissolved CO2 after pouring, denoted , was also chemically accessed by using carbonic anhydrase. To enable a statistical treatment, six successive CO2-dissolved measurements were systematically done for each type of drinking vessel, after six successive pouring (from six distinct bottles). When served at 20°C, champagne was found to initially hold (at t = 0, after pouring) a concentration of CO2-dissolved molecules of g L−1 in the flute, and g L−1 in the coupe (i.e., approximately 4 g L−1 less in both types of drinking vessel after pouring than inside the bottle, before pouring).

Bottom Line: The concentration of gaseous CO(2) was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe.Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2) visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency.Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2) escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Equipe Effervescence, Groupe de Spectrométrie Moléculaire et Atmosphérique, UMR CNRS 7331, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, BP 1039 Reims, France. gerard.liger-belair@univ-reims.fr

ABSTRACT
In champagne tasting, gaseous CO(2) and volatile organic compounds progressively invade the headspace above glasses, thus progressively modifying the chemical space perceived by the consumer. Simultaneous quantification of gaseous CO(2) and ethanol was monitored through micro-gas chromatography (μGC), all along the first 15 minutes following pouring, depending on whether a volume of 100 mL of champagne was served into a flute or into a coupe. The concentration of gaseous CO(2) was found to be significantly higher above the flute than above the coupe. Moreover, a recently developed gaseous CO(2) visualization technique based on infrared imaging was performed, thus confirming this tendency. The influence of champagne temperature was also tested. As could have been expected, lowering the temperature of champagne was found to decrease ethanol vapor concentrations in the headspace of a glass. Nevertheless, and quite surprisingly, this temperature decrease had no impact on the level of gaseous CO(2) found above the glass. Those results were discussed on the basis of a multiparameter model which describes fluxes of gaseous CO(2) escaping the liquid phase into the form of bubbles.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus