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Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

Bevins SN, Carver S, Boydston EE, Lyren LM, Alldredge M, Logan KA, Riley SP, Fisher RN, Vickers TW, Boyce W, Salman M, Lappin MR, Crooks KR, VandeWoude S - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location.Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site.Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA National Wildlife Disease Program, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America. bevins@rams.colostate.edu

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the mechanisms driving disease exposure and to predict zones of cross-species pathogen transmission among wild and domestic felids.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Seroprevalence, with bars representing 95% confidence intervals, of Bartonella spp., FIV, and T. gondii IgG for domestic cats, bobcats, and pumas at all study locations (FR  =  Front Range, CO; WS  =  Western Slope, CO; OC  =  Orange County, CA; SDRC  =  San Diego/Riverside Counties, CA; VC  =  Ventura County, CA).Sample sizes are listed above columns.
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pone-0031403-g002: Seroprevalence, with bars representing 95% confidence intervals, of Bartonella spp., FIV, and T. gondii IgG for domestic cats, bobcats, and pumas at all study locations (FR  =  Front Range, CO; WS  =  Western Slope, CO; OC  =  Orange County, CA; SDRC  =  San Diego/Riverside Counties, CA; VC  =  Ventura County, CA).Sample sizes are listed above columns.

Mentions: Average seroprevalence revealed general trends in pathogen exposure both within and across felid species and locations (Figure 2). Bartonella spp. seroprevalence varied considerably, but in almost all cases, Bartonella spp. seroprevalence was higher in California than in Colorado (Figure 2). For domestic cats in California, Bartonella sp. seroprevalence positively reflected proximity of sampling locations to large urban areas. Domestic cats sampled in Orange County, CA and Ventura County, CA, directly south and north, respectively, of the major metropolitan area of Los Angeles, had the highest Bartonella spp. seroprevalence rates of all locations and species (Figure 1, Figure 2). Feline Immunodeficiency Virus seroprevalence was higher in non-domestic felids compared to domestic felids. Toxoplasma gondii IgM seroprevalence (indicative of recent infection) was low in all species and locations, whereas T. gondii IgG seroprevalence was higher in non-domestic felids compared to domestic felids (Figure 2).


Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

Bevins SN, Carver S, Boydston EE, Lyren LM, Alldredge M, Logan KA, Riley SP, Fisher RN, Vickers TW, Boyce W, Salman M, Lappin MR, Crooks KR, VandeWoude S - PLoS ONE (2012)

Seroprevalence, with bars representing 95% confidence intervals, of Bartonella spp., FIV, and T. gondii IgG for domestic cats, bobcats, and pumas at all study locations (FR  =  Front Range, CO; WS  =  Western Slope, CO; OC  =  Orange County, CA; SDRC  =  San Diego/Riverside Counties, CA; VC  =  Ventura County, CA).Sample sizes are listed above columns.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3275583&req=5

pone-0031403-g002: Seroprevalence, with bars representing 95% confidence intervals, of Bartonella spp., FIV, and T. gondii IgG for domestic cats, bobcats, and pumas at all study locations (FR  =  Front Range, CO; WS  =  Western Slope, CO; OC  =  Orange County, CA; SDRC  =  San Diego/Riverside Counties, CA; VC  =  Ventura County, CA).Sample sizes are listed above columns.
Mentions: Average seroprevalence revealed general trends in pathogen exposure both within and across felid species and locations (Figure 2). Bartonella spp. seroprevalence varied considerably, but in almost all cases, Bartonella spp. seroprevalence was higher in California than in Colorado (Figure 2). For domestic cats in California, Bartonella sp. seroprevalence positively reflected proximity of sampling locations to large urban areas. Domestic cats sampled in Orange County, CA and Ventura County, CA, directly south and north, respectively, of the major metropolitan area of Los Angeles, had the highest Bartonella spp. seroprevalence rates of all locations and species (Figure 1, Figure 2). Feline Immunodeficiency Virus seroprevalence was higher in non-domestic felids compared to domestic felids. Toxoplasma gondii IgM seroprevalence (indicative of recent infection) was low in all species and locations, whereas T. gondii IgG seroprevalence was higher in non-domestic felids compared to domestic felids (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location.Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site.Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA National Wildlife Disease Program, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America. bevins@rams.colostate.edu

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the mechanisms driving disease exposure and to predict zones of cross-species pathogen transmission among wild and domestic felids.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus