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Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

Bevins SN, Carver S, Boydston EE, Lyren LM, Alldredge M, Logan KA, Riley SP, Fisher RN, Vickers TW, Boyce W, Salman M, Lappin MR, Crooks KR, VandeWoude S - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location.Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site.Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA National Wildlife Disease Program, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America. bevins@rams.colostate.edu

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the mechanisms driving disease exposure and to predict zones of cross-species pathogen transmission among wild and domestic felids.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Capture locations of puma, bobcat, and domestic cat, in relation to urbanized areas, in the different study areas: (a) Colorado Western Slope, (b) Colorado Front Range, (c) Ventura County California, (d) Orange County California, and (e) Riverside/San Diego Counties, California.Impervious surface refers to artificial materials found in urban areas (asphalt, concrete, etc.) and highly compacted soils and is an indicator of urban development intensity.
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pone-0031403-g001: Capture locations of puma, bobcat, and domestic cat, in relation to urbanized areas, in the different study areas: (a) Colorado Western Slope, (b) Colorado Front Range, (c) Ventura County California, (d) Orange County California, and (e) Riverside/San Diego Counties, California.Impervious surface refers to artificial materials found in urban areas (asphalt, concrete, etc.) and highly compacted soils and is an indicator of urban development intensity.

Mentions: In an attempt to better understand exposure to common pathogens in overlapping populations of wild and domestic animals, we examined exposure to three pathogens (two of which are zoonotic), representing different transmission modes, in three felid species: pumas (Puma concolor), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and domestic cats (Felis domesticus). These three species are sympatric in our study sites, especially along urban edges, and are susceptible to many of the same diseases, several of which can be transmitted both within and between species. In addition, bobcats and pumas vary in degree of contact with domestic cats, as well as in home range and resource requirements [7], [8], [9], [10]. Previous research suggested that bobcats are more likely than pumas to persist in fragmented urban habitats [11], and would be more likely to come into contact with domestic cats. These differences allow an examination of exposure to our three target pathogens, Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii, across a broad range of factors. This study design allows insight into felid infectious disease transmission characteristics by using basic seroprevalence analysis on an unprecedented scale (see Figure 1).


Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infectious disease transmission.

Bevins SN, Carver S, Boydston EE, Lyren LM, Alldredge M, Logan KA, Riley SP, Fisher RN, Vickers TW, Boyce W, Salman M, Lappin MR, Crooks KR, VandeWoude S - PLoS ONE (2012)

Capture locations of puma, bobcat, and domestic cat, in relation to urbanized areas, in the different study areas: (a) Colorado Western Slope, (b) Colorado Front Range, (c) Ventura County California, (d) Orange County California, and (e) Riverside/San Diego Counties, California.Impervious surface refers to artificial materials found in urban areas (asphalt, concrete, etc.) and highly compacted soils and is an indicator of urban development intensity.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3275583&req=5

pone-0031403-g001: Capture locations of puma, bobcat, and domestic cat, in relation to urbanized areas, in the different study areas: (a) Colorado Western Slope, (b) Colorado Front Range, (c) Ventura County California, (d) Orange County California, and (e) Riverside/San Diego Counties, California.Impervious surface refers to artificial materials found in urban areas (asphalt, concrete, etc.) and highly compacted soils and is an indicator of urban development intensity.
Mentions: In an attempt to better understand exposure to common pathogens in overlapping populations of wild and domestic animals, we examined exposure to three pathogens (two of which are zoonotic), representing different transmission modes, in three felid species: pumas (Puma concolor), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and domestic cats (Felis domesticus). These three species are sympatric in our study sites, especially along urban edges, and are susceptible to many of the same diseases, several of which can be transmitted both within and between species. In addition, bobcats and pumas vary in degree of contact with domestic cats, as well as in home range and resource requirements [7], [8], [9], [10]. Previous research suggested that bobcats are more likely than pumas to persist in fragmented urban habitats [11], and would be more likely to come into contact with domestic cats. These differences allow an examination of exposure to our three target pathogens, Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii, across a broad range of factors. This study design allows insight into felid infectious disease transmission characteristics by using basic seroprevalence analysis on an unprecedented scale (see Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location.Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site.Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: USDA National Wildlife Disease Program, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America. bevins@rams.colostate.edu

ABSTRACT
Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases--vector-borne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii--varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the mechanisms driving disease exposure and to predict zones of cross-species pathogen transmission among wild and domestic felids.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus