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Home range and ranging behaviour of Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) females.

Alfred R, Ahmad AH, Payne J, Williams C, Ambu LN, How PM, Goossens B - PLoS ONE (2012)

Bottom Line: The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another.Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation.Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Borneo Species Programme, World Wildlife Fund-Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. raymond_alfred@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Home range is defined as the extent and location of the area covered annually by a wild animal in its natural habitat. Studies of African and Indian elephants in landscapes of largely open habitats have indicated that the sizes of the home range are determined not only by the food supplies and seasonal changes, but also by numerous other factors including availability of water sources, habitat loss and the existence of man-made barriers. The home range size for the Bornean elephant had never been investigated before.

Methodology/principal findings: The first satellite tracking program to investigate the movement of wild Bornean elephants in Sabah was initiated in 2005. Five adult female elephants were immobilized and neck collars were fitted with tracking devices. The sizes of their home range and movement patterns were determined using location data gathered from a satellite tracking system and analyzed by using the Minimum Convex Polygon and Harmonic Mean methods. Home range size was estimated to be 250 to 400 km(2) in a non-fragmented forest and 600 km(2) in a fragmented forest. The ranging behavior was influenced by the size of the natural forest habitat and the availability of permanent water sources. The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another.

Conclusions/significance: Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation. Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas. Therefore movement rate in fragmented forest was higher than in the non-fragmented forest. Finally, in fragmented habitat human and elephant conflict occurrences were likely to be higher, due to increased movement bringing elephants into contact more often with humans.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Monthly ranging for BodTai's herd in fragmented forest (using Harmonic Mean 95% isopleths).
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pone-0031400-g004: Monthly ranging for BodTai's herd in fragmented forest (using Harmonic Mean 95% isopleths).

Mentions: The highest monthly ranging for the elephant in the fragmented forest was recorded during March 2006, when Bod Tai's herd moved along a narrow riparian strip in Lower Kinabatangan, and utilized patches of fragmented forest. Figures 4 and 5 show the monthly ranging for Bod Tai's herd and Nancy's herd for one year (generated using the Harmonic Mean with 95% isopleths).


Home range and ranging behaviour of Bornean elephant (Elephas maximus borneensis) females.

Alfred R, Ahmad AH, Payne J, Williams C, Ambu LN, How PM, Goossens B - PLoS ONE (2012)

Monthly ranging for BodTai's herd in fragmented forest (using Harmonic Mean 95% isopleths).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3275559&req=5

pone-0031400-g004: Monthly ranging for BodTai's herd in fragmented forest (using Harmonic Mean 95% isopleths).
Mentions: The highest monthly ranging for the elephant in the fragmented forest was recorded during March 2006, when Bod Tai's herd moved along a narrow riparian strip in Lower Kinabatangan, and utilized patches of fragmented forest. Figures 4 and 5 show the monthly ranging for Bod Tai's herd and Nancy's herd for one year (generated using the Harmonic Mean with 95% isopleths).

Bottom Line: The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another.Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation.Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Borneo Species Programme, World Wildlife Fund-Malaysia, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. raymond_alfred@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Background: Home range is defined as the extent and location of the area covered annually by a wild animal in its natural habitat. Studies of African and Indian elephants in landscapes of largely open habitats have indicated that the sizes of the home range are determined not only by the food supplies and seasonal changes, but also by numerous other factors including availability of water sources, habitat loss and the existence of man-made barriers. The home range size for the Bornean elephant had never been investigated before.

Methodology/principal findings: The first satellite tracking program to investigate the movement of wild Bornean elephants in Sabah was initiated in 2005. Five adult female elephants were immobilized and neck collars were fitted with tracking devices. The sizes of their home range and movement patterns were determined using location data gathered from a satellite tracking system and analyzed by using the Minimum Convex Polygon and Harmonic Mean methods. Home range size was estimated to be 250 to 400 km(2) in a non-fragmented forest and 600 km(2) in a fragmented forest. The ranging behavior was influenced by the size of the natural forest habitat and the availability of permanent water sources. The movement pattern was influenced by human disturbance and the need to move from one feeding site to another.

Conclusions/significance: Home range and movement rate were influenced by the degree of habitat fragmentation. Once habitat was cleared or converted, the availability of food plants and water sources were reduced, forcing the elephants to travel to adjacent forest areas. Therefore movement rate in fragmented forest was higher than in the non-fragmented forest. Finally, in fragmented habitat human and elephant conflict occurrences were likely to be higher, due to increased movement bringing elephants into contact more often with humans.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus