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Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin.

Pua FL, Fang Z, Zakaria S, Guo F, Chia CH - Biotechnol Biofuels (2011)

Bottom Line: The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated.It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved.This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. zhenFANG@xtbg.ac.cn.

ABSTRACT

Background: Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated.

Results: The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved.

Conclusions: The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) spectra of sulfonated Kraft lignin chars (A) without phosphoric acid pretreatment and (B) with phosphoric acid pretreatment (catalyst). Figure 5 shows the EDX spectra for the Kraft lignin char with and without acid treatment and the presence of sulfonic group in the char.
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Figure 5: Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) spectra of sulfonated Kraft lignin chars (A) without phosphoric acid pretreatment and (B) with phosphoric acid pretreatment (catalyst). Figure 5 shows the EDX spectra for the Kraft lignin char with and without acid treatment and the presence of sulfonic group in the char.

Mentions: Table 1 shows the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method apparent surface area of the Kraft lignin char, pretreated Kraft lignin char and sulfonated char derived from Kraft lignin. The untreated Kraft lignin char gives a surface area of 127.6 m2/g. The surface area of phosphoric pretreated char increased dramatically to 654.4 m2/g, suggesting that phosphoric pretreatment promoted the formation of highly porous structure [26,27]. The surface area of the Kraft lignin char after sulfonation reduced to 54.8 m2/g. The single point adsorption total pore volume of pores that were less than 1246.11 Å width at P/Po = 0.98 was also checked. This was reduced from 0.544 cm3/g to 0.058 cm3/g after the sulfonation process. These results are consistent with the SEM images. The reduction of pores and the surface area might be due to the penetration of acid groups on the surface of porous char. The images reveal the well defined pores on char particles. This might be due to an attack on the structure by the strong acid, resulting in shrinkage of the structure and broken bonds [26]. Figure 5 shows energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) results for the sulfonated char; its S content increased from 5.74 to 6.95 wt% (corresponding to an acid density of SO3H increasing from 1.8 to 2.1 mmol/g) after pretreatment with phosphoric acid. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) was also used to assess surface acidity of the catalyst using an automated chemisorption analyzer (Chembet Pulsar; Quantachrome Instruments, Boynton Beach, FL, USA). The acidity was 0.74 mmol/g, which was estimated as being the total amount of NH3 released through TPD per gram of catalyst sample. In another measurement, the sulfonated char had 1.30 mmol/g of acidic sites based on the result from titration. Different methods revealed different acid densities.


Direct production of biodiesel from high-acid value Jatropha oil with solid acid catalyst derived from lignin.

Pua FL, Fang Z, Zakaria S, Guo F, Chia CH - Biotechnol Biofuels (2011)

Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) spectra of sulfonated Kraft lignin chars (A) without phosphoric acid pretreatment and (B) with phosphoric acid pretreatment (catalyst). Figure 5 shows the EDX spectra for the Kraft lignin char with and without acid treatment and the presence of sulfonic group in the char.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3275475&req=5

Figure 5: Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) spectra of sulfonated Kraft lignin chars (A) without phosphoric acid pretreatment and (B) with phosphoric acid pretreatment (catalyst). Figure 5 shows the EDX spectra for the Kraft lignin char with and without acid treatment and the presence of sulfonic group in the char.
Mentions: Table 1 shows the Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method apparent surface area of the Kraft lignin char, pretreated Kraft lignin char and sulfonated char derived from Kraft lignin. The untreated Kraft lignin char gives a surface area of 127.6 m2/g. The surface area of phosphoric pretreated char increased dramatically to 654.4 m2/g, suggesting that phosphoric pretreatment promoted the formation of highly porous structure [26,27]. The surface area of the Kraft lignin char after sulfonation reduced to 54.8 m2/g. The single point adsorption total pore volume of pores that were less than 1246.11 Å width at P/Po = 0.98 was also checked. This was reduced from 0.544 cm3/g to 0.058 cm3/g after the sulfonation process. These results are consistent with the SEM images. The reduction of pores and the surface area might be due to the penetration of acid groups on the surface of porous char. The images reveal the well defined pores on char particles. This might be due to an attack on the structure by the strong acid, resulting in shrinkage of the structure and broken bonds [26]. Figure 5 shows energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) results for the sulfonated char; its S content increased from 5.74 to 6.95 wt% (corresponding to an acid density of SO3H increasing from 1.8 to 2.1 mmol/g) after pretreatment with phosphoric acid. Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) was also used to assess surface acidity of the catalyst using an automated chemisorption analyzer (Chembet Pulsar; Quantachrome Instruments, Boynton Beach, FL, USA). The acidity was 0.74 mmol/g, which was estimated as being the total amount of NH3 released through TPD per gram of catalyst sample. In another measurement, the sulfonated char had 1.30 mmol/g of acidic sites based on the result from titration. Different methods revealed different acid densities.

Bottom Line: The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated.It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved.This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia. zhenFANG@xtbg.ac.cn.

ABSTRACT

Background: Solid acid catalyst was prepared from Kraft lignin by chemical activation with phosphoric acid, pyrolysis and sulfuric acid. This catalyst had high acid density as characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and Brunauer, Emmett, and Teller (BET) method analyses. It was further used to catalyze the esterification of oleic acid and one-step conversion of non-pretreated Jatropha oil to biodiesel. The effects of catalyst loading, reaction temperature and oil-to-methanol molar ratio, on the catalytic activity of the esterification were investigated.

Results: The highest catalytic activity was achieved with a 96.1% esterification rate, and the catalyst can be reused three times with little deactivation under optimized conditions. Biodiesel production from Jatropha oil was studied under such conditions. It was found that 96.3% biodiesel yield from non-pretreated Jatropha oil with high-acid value (12.7 mg KOH/g) could be achieved.

Conclusions: The catalyst can be easily separated for reuse. This single-step process could be a potential route for biodiesel production from high-acid value oil by simplifying the procedure and reducing costs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus