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Medical illustration: art in medical education.

Hajar R - Heart Views (2011)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Heart Center, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

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“Draw what can’t be seen, watch what's never been done, and tell thousands about it without saying a word. ” When I was a medical student, I found the medical illustrations accompanying voluminous texts extremely helpful in aiding my understanding of anatomy, physiology, and pathology... Many years later, as a practicing physician, I still find such illustrations enormously useful, especially when viewing technical and digital images of various disease processes... If it were truly the drawing of a heart, (which it probably was), it would be the first anatomical illustration... Prehistoric societies were primarily hunting societies and the heart must have been the organ that attracted the attention of man from earliest times because he found it beating as long as there was life and he soon must have discovered that the best way to kill an animal was to spear it through the heart... In contrast, the stoics, a philosophical school of thought in classical Greece, believed that the human soul pervades and breathes through all the body – informing and guiding it, a doctrine that Galen strongly opposed... Galen wrote of Chrysippus, the leader of the stoics, “Though he sees the truth, he does not use it”... Galen, in his writings appreciated and admired the work of Herophilus: “his knowledge of facts acquired through anatomy was exceedingly precise, and most of his observations were made not, as in the case of most of us, on brute beasts but on human beings themselves”... He almost discovered the circulation but failed to make the correct deductions from the data available to him... Many historians of medicine have analyzed Galen's writings, trying to understand why, brilliant as he was, he did not make the conclusion that the heart is only a pump organ, devoid of emotions or feelings... Thus, during the Renaissance, physician-scientists were able to make a flood of new discoveries and inventions, and advance medical knowledge... Drawings, paintings, and sketches helped to better show and explain a medical finding. “Anatomy is the foundation of medicine and should be based on the form of the human body” declared Hippocrates... His work served an invaluable tool in educating students about anatomy, physiology and surgical procedures... Today, animated computer based art is synergistically used with medical illustration to educate students about anatomy... Medical students depend on illustration to learn anatomical facts and details that maybe too subtle for the written or spoken word... Oftentimes, an illustration transmits the pertinent, useful, and important information much more effectively than words.

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Cave-drawing of a mammoth in El Pindal cave in Spain, with dark smudge at shoulder, which may represent the heart. The drawing may have been used to teach young hunters where to aim their arrow or spear. (Photo Source: Lyons AS, Petrucelli RJ. Medicine: An Illustrated History. New York. Harry N. Abrams Inc:1987.
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Figure 1: Cave-drawing of a mammoth in El Pindal cave in Spain, with dark smudge at shoulder, which may represent the heart. The drawing may have been used to teach young hunters where to aim their arrow or spear. (Photo Source: Lyons AS, Petrucelli RJ. Medicine: An Illustrated History. New York. Harry N. Abrams Inc:1987.


Medical illustration: art in medical education.

Hajar R - Heart Views (2011)

Cave-drawing of a mammoth in El Pindal cave in Spain, with dark smudge at shoulder, which may represent the heart. The drawing may have been used to teach young hunters where to aim their arrow or spear. (Photo Source: Lyons AS, Petrucelli RJ. Medicine: An Illustrated History. New York. Harry N. Abrams Inc:1987.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3221200&req=5

Figure 1: Cave-drawing of a mammoth in El Pindal cave in Spain, with dark smudge at shoulder, which may represent the heart. The drawing may have been used to teach young hunters where to aim their arrow or spear. (Photo Source: Lyons AS, Petrucelli RJ. Medicine: An Illustrated History. New York. Harry N. Abrams Inc:1987.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departments of Cardiology and Cardiothoracic Surgery, Heart Center, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

“Draw what can’t be seen, watch what's never been done, and tell thousands about it without saying a word. ” When I was a medical student, I found the medical illustrations accompanying voluminous texts extremely helpful in aiding my understanding of anatomy, physiology, and pathology... Many years later, as a practicing physician, I still find such illustrations enormously useful, especially when viewing technical and digital images of various disease processes... If it were truly the drawing of a heart, (which it probably was), it would be the first anatomical illustration... Prehistoric societies were primarily hunting societies and the heart must have been the organ that attracted the attention of man from earliest times because he found it beating as long as there was life and he soon must have discovered that the best way to kill an animal was to spear it through the heart... In contrast, the stoics, a philosophical school of thought in classical Greece, believed that the human soul pervades and breathes through all the body – informing and guiding it, a doctrine that Galen strongly opposed... Galen wrote of Chrysippus, the leader of the stoics, “Though he sees the truth, he does not use it”... Galen, in his writings appreciated and admired the work of Herophilus: “his knowledge of facts acquired through anatomy was exceedingly precise, and most of his observations were made not, as in the case of most of us, on brute beasts but on human beings themselves”... He almost discovered the circulation but failed to make the correct deductions from the data available to him... Many historians of medicine have analyzed Galen's writings, trying to understand why, brilliant as he was, he did not make the conclusion that the heart is only a pump organ, devoid of emotions or feelings... Thus, during the Renaissance, physician-scientists were able to make a flood of new discoveries and inventions, and advance medical knowledge... Drawings, paintings, and sketches helped to better show and explain a medical finding. “Anatomy is the foundation of medicine and should be based on the form of the human body” declared Hippocrates... His work served an invaluable tool in educating students about anatomy, physiology and surgical procedures... Today, animated computer based art is synergistically used with medical illustration to educate students about anatomy... Medical students depend on illustration to learn anatomical facts and details that maybe too subtle for the written or spoken word... Oftentimes, an illustration transmits the pertinent, useful, and important information much more effectively than words.

No MeSH data available.