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Cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of three types of magnetic nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells.

Kai W, Xiaojun X, Ximing P, Zhenqing H, Qiqing Z - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

Bottom Line: The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol.Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway.The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, PR China. qiq@xmu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
The evaluation of the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention in recent years. The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Fe3O4, oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 (OA-Fe3O4), and carbon-coated Fe (C-Fe) nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells and the mechanisms. WST-1 assay demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of three types of MNPs was in a dose-dependent manner. G1 (Fe3O4 and OA-Fe3O4) phase and G2 (C-Fe) phase cell arrests and apoptosis induced by MNPs were detected by flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol. Moreover, apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological and biochemical hallmarks, such as swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae and caspase-3 activation. Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway. The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

MNPs induced apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells by Annexin V/PI assay. Annexin V-FITC/PI assay shows cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. Exposure of BEL-7402 cells to MNPs (0.05 and 1 mg/mL) for 24 h increased cell apoptosis. *P < 0.05 vs. control; **P < 0.01 vs. control.
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Figure 3: MNPs induced apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells by Annexin V/PI assay. Annexin V-FITC/PI assay shows cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. Exposure of BEL-7402 cells to MNPs (0.05 and 1 mg/mL) for 24 h increased cell apoptosis. *P < 0.05 vs. control; **P < 0.01 vs. control.

Mentions: To assess the extent and mode of cell death induced by MNPs, Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed. Externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) seems to be a general feature of early stage apoptosis. Annexin V which has a strong Ca2+-dependent affinity for PS [39] was used to measure the apoptotic rate of BEL-7402 cells in response to the treatment of MNPs. The BEL-7402 cells were labeled with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/PI. The Annexin V-/PI- population was regarded as normal cells, while positive staining just for Annexin V was used as a measure of early apoptosis and Annexin V-/PI+ was related to late apoptosis or necrosis [40]. Statistical data were extracted from the dot plots using WinMDI software [37]. As shown in Figure 3, compared with the untreated cells, a significant increase in the ratio of apoptosis cell was observed in Fe3O4 and C-Fe MNPs (0.05 mg/mL) treated cells (P < 0.05, the probability values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistics significance). At high concentration (1 mg/mL), all MNPs cause serious cell apoptosis (P < 0.01). Besides, a dose-dependent apoptosis rate was observed in all three types of MNP-treated cells. Moreover, the apoptosis rate of cells exposed to three types of MNPs would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4, in the same concentration.


Cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of three types of magnetic nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells.

Kai W, Xiaojun X, Ximing P, Zhenqing H, Qiqing Z - Nanoscale Res Lett (2011)

MNPs induced apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells by Annexin V/PI assay. Annexin V-FITC/PI assay shows cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. Exposure of BEL-7402 cells to MNPs (0.05 and 1 mg/mL) for 24 h increased cell apoptosis. *P < 0.05 vs. control; **P < 0.01 vs. control.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3211994&req=5

Figure 3: MNPs induced apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells by Annexin V/PI assay. Annexin V-FITC/PI assay shows cell apoptosis by flow cytometry. Exposure of BEL-7402 cells to MNPs (0.05 and 1 mg/mL) for 24 h increased cell apoptosis. *P < 0.05 vs. control; **P < 0.01 vs. control.
Mentions: To assess the extent and mode of cell death induced by MNPs, Annexin-V/propidium iodide (PI) staining was performed. Externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) seems to be a general feature of early stage apoptosis. Annexin V which has a strong Ca2+-dependent affinity for PS [39] was used to measure the apoptotic rate of BEL-7402 cells in response to the treatment of MNPs. The BEL-7402 cells were labeled with annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/PI. The Annexin V-/PI- population was regarded as normal cells, while positive staining just for Annexin V was used as a measure of early apoptosis and Annexin V-/PI+ was related to late apoptosis or necrosis [40]. Statistical data were extracted from the dot plots using WinMDI software [37]. As shown in Figure 3, compared with the untreated cells, a significant increase in the ratio of apoptosis cell was observed in Fe3O4 and C-Fe MNPs (0.05 mg/mL) treated cells (P < 0.05, the probability values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistics significance). At high concentration (1 mg/mL), all MNPs cause serious cell apoptosis (P < 0.01). Besides, a dose-dependent apoptosis rate was observed in all three types of MNP-treated cells. Moreover, the apoptosis rate of cells exposed to three types of MNPs would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4, in the same concentration.

Bottom Line: The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol.Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway.The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, PR China. qiq@xmu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
The evaluation of the toxicity of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) has attracted much attention in recent years. The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effects of Fe3O4, oleic acid-coated Fe3O4 (OA-Fe3O4), and carbon-coated Fe (C-Fe) nanoparticles on human hepatoma BEL-7402 cells and the mechanisms. WST-1 assay demonstrated that the cytotoxicity of three types of MNPs was in a dose-dependent manner. G1 (Fe3O4 and OA-Fe3O4) phase and G2 (C-Fe) phase cell arrests and apoptosis induced by MNPs were detected by flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was accompanied with the Bax over-expression, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, and the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytosol. Moreover, apoptosis was further confirmed by morphological and biochemical hallmarks, such as swollen mitochondria with lysing cristae and caspase-3 activation. Our results revealed that certain concentrations of the three types of MNPs affect BEL-7402 cells viability via cell arrest and inducing apoptosis, and the MNPs-induced apoptosis is mediated through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway. The influence potency of MNPs observed in all experiments would be: C-Fe > Fe3O4 > OA-Fe3O4.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus